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HomeTech Articles >Pelican Technical Bulletin: All About Gasoline

Pelican Technical Bulletin:

More Than You Ever Wanted to
Know About Gasoline

from usenet rec.autos.tech

Gasoline FAQ - Part 4 of 4

8.9  How serious is valve seat recession on older vehicles?
The amount of exhaust valve seat recession is very dependent on the load on
the engine. There have been several major studies on valve seat recession,
and they conclude that most damage occurs under high-speed, high-power
conditions. Engine load is not a primary factor in valve seat wear for
moderate operating conditions, and low to medium speed engines under
moderate loads do not suffer rapid recession, as has been demonstrated
on fuels such as CNG and LPG. Under severe conditions, damage occurs rapidly,
however there are significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations on the same
engine. A 1970 engine operated at 70 mph conditions exhibited an average
1.5mm of seat recession in 12,000km. The difference between cylinders has
been attributed to different rates of valve rotation, and experiments have
confirmed that more rotation does increase the recession rate [29].
The mechanism of valve seat wear is a mixture of two major mechanisms. Iron
oxide from the combustion chamber surfaces adheres to the valve face and
becomes embedded. These hard particles then allow the valve act as a grinding
wheel and cut into the valve seat [115]. The significance of valve seat
recession is that should it occur to the extent that the valve does not seat,
serious engine damage can result from the localised hot spot.
There are a range of additives, usually based on potassium, sodium or
phosphorus that can be added to the gasoline to combat valve seat recession.
As phosphorus has adverse effects on exhaust catalysts, it is seldom used.
The best long term solution is to induction harden the seats or install
inserts, usually when the head is removed for other work, however additives
are routinely and successfully used during transition periods.
Section: 9. Alternative Fuels and Additives

9.1 Do fuel additives work?
Most aftermarket fuel additives are not cost-effective. These include the
octane-enhancer solutions discussed in section 6.18. There are various other
pills, tablets, magnets, filters, etc. that all claim to improve either fuel
economy or performance. Some of these have perfectly sound scientific
mechanisms, unfortunately they are not cost-effective. Some do not even have
sound scientific mechanisms. Because the same model production vehicles can
vary significantly, it's expensive to unambiguously demonstrate these
additives are not cost-effective. If you wish to try them, remember the
biggest gain is likely to be caused by the lower mass of your wallet/purse.
There is one aftermarket additive that may be cost-effective, the lubricity
additive used with unleaded gasolines to combat exhaust valve seat recession
on engines that do not have seat inserts. This additive may be routinely
added during the first few years of unleaded by the gasoline producers, but
in the US this could not occur because they did not have EPA waivers, and
also may be incompatible with 2-stroke engine oil additives and form a gel
that blocks filters. The amount of recession is very dependent on the engine
design and driving style. The long-term solution is to install inserts, or
have the seats hardened, at the next top overhaul.
Some other fuel additives work, especially those that are carefully
formulated into the gasoline by the manufacturer at the refinery, and
have often been subjected to decades-long evaluation and use [12,13].
A typical gasoline may contain [16,27,32,38,111]:-
* Oil-soluble Dye, initially added to leaded gasoline at about 10 ppm to
prevent its misuse as an industrial solvent, and now also used
to identify grades of product.
* Antioxidants, typically phenylene diamines or hindered phenols, are
added to prevent oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
* Metal Deactivators, typically about 10ppm of chelating agent such as
N,N'-disalicylidene-1,2-propanediamine is added to inhibit copper,
which can rapidly catalyze oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
* Corrosion Inhibitors, about 5ppm of oil-soluble surfactants are added
to prevent corrosion caused either by water condensing from cooling,
water-saturated gasoline, or from condensation from air onto the
walls of almost-empty gasoline tanks that drop below the dew point.
If your gasoline travels along a pipeline, it's possible the pipeline
owner will add additional corrosion inhibitor to the fuel.
* Anti-icing Additives, used mainly with carburetted cars, and usually either
a surfactant, alcohol or glycol.
* Anti-wear Additives, these are used to control wear in the upper cylinder
and piston ring area that the gasoline contacts, and are usually
very light hydrocarbon oils. Phosphorus additives can also be used
on engines without exhaust catalyst systems.
* Deposit-modifying Additives, usually surfactants.
1. Carburettor Deposits, additives to prevent these were required when
crankcase blow-by (PCV) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) controls
were introduced. Some fuel components reacted with these gas streams
to form deposits on the throat and throttle plate of carburettors.
2. Fuel Injector tips operate about 100C, and deposits form in the
annulus during hot soak, mainly from the oxidation and polymerisation
of the larger unsaturated hydrocarbons. The additives that prevent
and unclog these tips are usually polybutene succinimides or
polyether amines.
3. Intake Valve Deposits caused major problems in the mid-1980s when
some engines had reduced driveability when fully warmed, even though
the amount of deposit was below previously acceptable limits. It is
believed that the new fuels and engine designs were producing a more
absorbent deposit that grabbed some passing fuel vapour, causing lean
hesitation. Intake valves operate about 300C, and if the valve is
kept wet, deposits tend not to form, thus intermittent injectors
tend to promote deposits. Oil leaking through the valve guides can be
either harmful or beneficial, depending on the type and quantity.
Gasoline factors implicated in these deposits include unsaturates and
alcohols. Additives to prevent these deposits contain a detergent
and/or dispersant in a higher molecular weight solvent or light oil
whose low volatility keeps the valve surface wetted [46,47,48].
4. Combustion Chamber Deposits have been targeted in the 1990s, as they
are responsible for significant increases in emissions. Recent
detergent-dispersant additives have the ability to function in both
the liquid and vapour phases to remove existing deposits that have
resulted from the use of other additives, and prevent deposit
formation. Note that these additives can not remove all deposits,
just those resulting from the use of additives.
* Octane Enhancers, these are usually formulated blends of alkyl lead
or MMT compounds in a solvent such as toluene, and added at the
100-1000 ppm levels. They have been replaced by hydrocarbons with
higher octanes such as aromatics and olefins. These hydrocarbons
are now being replaced by a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons and
and oxygenates.
If you wish to play with different fuels and additives, be aware that
some parts of your engine management systems, such as the oxygen sensor,
can be confused by different exhaust gas compositions. An example is
increased quantities of hydrogen from methanol combustion.
9.2 Can a quality fuel help a sick engine?

It depends on the ailment. Nothing can compensate for poor tuning and wear.
If the problem is caused by deposits or combustion quality, then modern
premium quality gasolines have been shown to improve engine performance
significantly. The new generation of additive packages for gasolines include
components that will dissolve existing carbon deposits, and have been shown
to improve fuel economy, NOx emissions, and driveability [49,50,111]. While
there may be some disputes amongst the various producers about relative
merits, it is quite clear that premium quality fuels do have superior
additive packages that help to maintain engine condition [16,28,111],
9.3 What are the advantages of alcohols and ethers?
This section discusses only the use of high ( >80% ) alcohol or ether fuels.
Alcohol fuels can be made from sources other than imported crude oil, and the
nations that have researched/used alcohol fuels have mainly based their
choice on import substitution. Alcohol fuels can burn more efficiently, and
can reduce photochemically-active emissions. Most vehicle manufacturers
favoured the use of liquid fuels over compressed or liquified gases. The
alcohol fuels have high research octane ratings, but also high sensitivity
and high latent heats [8,27,80,116].
Methanol Ethanol Unleaded Gasoline
RON 106 107 92 - 98
MON 92 89 80 - 90
Heat of Vaporisation (MJ/kg) 1.154 0.913 0.3044
Nett Heating Value (MJ/kg) 19.95 26.68 42 - 44
Vapour Pressure @ 38C (kPa) 31.9 16.0 48 - 108
Flame Temperature ( C ) 1870 1920 2030
Stoich. Flame Speed. ( m/s ) 0.43 - 0.34
Minimum Ignition Energy ( mJ ) 0.14 - 0.29
Lower Flammable Limit ( vol% ) 6.7 3.3 1.3
Upper Flammable Limit ( vol% ) 36.0 19.0 7.1
Autoignition Temperature ( C ) 460 360 260 - 460
Flash Point ( C ) 11 13 -43 - -39

The major advantages are gained when pure fuels ( M100, and E100 ) are used,
as the addition of hydrocarbons to overcome the cold start problems also
significantly reduces, if not totally eliminates, any emission benefits.
Methanol will produce significant amounts of formaldehyde, a suspected
human carcinogen, until the exhaust catalyst reaches operating temperature.
Ethanol produces acetaldehyde. The cold-start problems have been addressed,
and alcohol fuels are technically viable, however with crude oil at
<$30/bbl they are not economically viable, especially as the demand for then
as precursors for gasoline oxygenates has elevated the world prices.
Methanol almost doubled in price during 1994. There have also been trials
of pure MTBE as a fuel, however there are no unique or significant advantages
that would outweigh the poor economic viability [15].
9.4 Why are CNG and LPG considered "cleaner" fuels.

CNG ( Compressed Natural Gas ) is usually around 70-90% methane with 10-20%
ethane, 2-8% propanes, and decreasing quantities of the higher HCs up to
butane. The fuel has a high octane and usually only trace quantities of
unsaturates. The emissions from CNG have lower concentrations of the
hydrocarbons responsible for photochemical smog, reduced CO, SOx, and NOx,
and the lean misfire limit is extended [117]. There are no technical
disadvantages, providing the installation is performed correctly. The major
disadvantage of compressed gas is the reduced range. Vehicles may have
between one to three cylinders ( 25 MPa, 90-120 litre capacity), and they
usually represent about 50% of the gasoline range. As natural gas pipelines
do not go everywhere, most conversions are dual-fuel with gasoline. The
ignition timing and stoichiometry are significantly different, but good
conversions will provide about 85% of the gasoline power over the full
operating range, with easy switching between the two fuels [118]. Concerns
about the safety of CNG have proved to be unfounded [119,120].
CNG has been extensively used in Italy and New Zealand ( NZ had 130,000
dual-fuelled vehicles with 380 refuelling stations in 1987 ). The conversion
costs are usually around US$1000, so the economics are very dependent on the
natural gas price. The typical 15% power loss means that driveability of
retrofitted CNG-fuelled vehicles is easily impaired, consequently it is not
recommended for vehicles of less than 1.5l engine capacity, or retrofitted
onto engine/vehicle combinations that have marginal driveability on gasoline.
The low price of crude oil, along with installation and ongoing CNG
tank-testing costs, have reduced the number of CNG vehicles in NZ. The US
CNG fleet continues to increase in size ( 60,000 in 1994 ).

LPG ( Liquified Petroleum Gas ) is predominantly propane with iso-butane
and n-butane. It has one major advantage over CNG, the tanks do not have
to be high pressure, and the fuel is stored as a liquid. The fuel offers
most of the environmental benefits of CNG, including high octane.
Approximately 20-25% more fuel is required, unless the engine is optimised
( CR 12:1 ) for LPG, in which case there is no decrease in power or increase
in fuel consumption [27,118]. There have been several studies that have
compared the relative advantages of CNG and LPG, and often LPG has been
found to be a more suitable transportation fuel [118,120].
methane propane iso-octane
RON 120 112 100
MON 120 97 100
Heat of Vaporisation (MJ/kg) 0.5094 0.4253 0.2712
Net Heating Value (MJ/kg) 50.0 46.2 44.2
Vapour Pressure @ 38C ( kPa ) - - 11.8
Flame Temperature ( C ) 1950 1925 1980
Stoich. Flame Speed. ( m/s ) 0.45 0.45 0.31
Minimum Ignition Energy ( mJ ) 0.30 0.26 -
Lower Flammable Limit ( vol% ) 5.0 2.1 0.95
Upper Flammable Limit ( vol% ) 15.0 9.5 6.0
Autoignition Temperature ( C ) 540 - 630 450 415
9.5 Why are hydrogen-powered cars not available?
The Hindenburg.
The technology to operate IC engines on hydrogen has been investigated in
depth since before the turn of the century. One attraction was to
use the hydrogen in airships to fuel the engines instead of venting it.
Hydrogen has a very high flame speed ( 3.24 - 4.40 m/s ), wide flammability
limits ( 4.0 - 75 vol% ), low ignition energy ( 0.017 mJ ), high autoignition
temperature ( 520C ), and flame temperature of 2050 C. Hydrogen has a very
high specific energy ( 120.0 MJ/kg ), making it very desirable as a
transportation fuel. The problem has been to develop a storage system that
will pass all safety concerns, and yet still be light enough for automotive
use. Although hydrogen can be mixed with oxygen and combusted more
efficiently, most proposals use air [114,119,121-124].
Unfortunately the flame temperature is sufficiently high to dissociate
atmospheric nitrogen and form undesirable NOx emissions. The high flame
speeds mean that ignition timing is at TDC, except when running lean, when
the ignition timing is advanced 10 degrees. The high flame speed, coupled
with a very small quenching distance mean that the flame can sneak past
narrow inlet valve openings and cause backflash. This can be mitigated by
the induction of fine mist of water, which also has the benefit of
increasing thermal efficiency ( although the water lowers the combustion
temperature, the phase change creases voluminous gases that increase
pressure ), and reducing NOx [124]. An alternative technique is to use
direct cylinder induction, which injects hydrogen once the cylinder
has filled with an air charge, and because the volume required is so
large, modern engines have two inlet valves, one for hydrogen and one for
air [124]. The advantage of a wide range of mixture strengths and high
thermal efficiencies are matched by the disadvantages of pre-ignition and
knock unless weak mixtures, clean engines, and cool operation are used.
Interested readers are referred to the group sci.energy.hydrogen and the
" Hydrogen Energy" monograph in the Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical
Technology [124], for recent information about this fuel.
9.6 What are "fuel cells" ?

Fuel cells are electrochemical cells that directly oxidise the fuel at
electrodes producing electrical and thermal energy. The oxidant is usually
oxygen from the air and the fuel is usually gaseous, with hydrogen
preferred. There has, so far, been little success using low temperature fuel
cells ( < 200C ) to perform the direct oxidation of hydrocarbon-based liquids
or gases. Methanol can be used as a source for the hydrogen by adding an
on-board reformer. The main advantage of fuel cells is their high fuel-to-
electricity efficiency of about 40-60% of the nett calorific value of the
fuel. As fuel cells also produce heat that can be used for vehicle climate
control, fuel cells are the most likely candidate to replace the IC engine
as a primary energy source. Fuel cells are quiet and produce virtually no
toxic emissions, but they do require a clean fuel ( no halogens, CO, S, or
ammonia ) to avoid poisoning. They currently are expensive to produce, and
have a short operational lifetime, when compared to an IC engine [125-127].
9.7 What is a "hybrid" vehicle?
A hybrid vehicle has three major systems [128].
1. A primary power source, either an IC engine driven generator where the
IC engine only operates in the most efficient part of it's performance
map, or alternatives such as fuel cells and turbines.
2. A power storage unit, which can be a flywheel, battery, or ultracapacitor.
3. A drive unit, almost always now an electric motor that can used as a
generator during braking. Regenerative braking may increase the
operational range about 8-13%.
Battery technology has not yet advanced sufficiently to economically
substitute for an IC engine, while retaining the carrying capacity, range,
performance, and driveability of the vehicle. Hybrid vehicles may enable
this problem to be at least partially overcome, but they remain expensive,
and the current ZEV proposals exclude fuel cells and hybrids systems, but
this is being re-evaluated.
9.8 What about other alternative fuels?
9.8.1 Ammonia (NH3)
Anhydrous ammonia has been researched because it does not contain any carbon,
and so would not release any CO2. The high heat of vaporisation requires
a pre-vaporisation step, preferably also with high jacket temperatures
( 180C ) to assist decomposition. Power outputs of about 70% of that of
gasoline under the same conditions have been achieved [114]. Ammonia fuel
also produces copious quantities of undesirable oxides of nitrogen (NOx)

9.8.2 Water
As water-gasoline fuels have been extensively investigated [113,129],
interested potential investors may wish to refer to those papers for some
background. Mr.Gunnerman advocates hydrocarbon/water emulsion fuels and
promoted his A-55 fuel before the new A-21. A recent article claims a 29%
gain in fuel economy [130], and he claims that mixing water with naphtha
can provide as much power from an IC engine as the same flow rate of
gasoline. He claims the increased efficiency is from catalysed dissociation
of A-21 into H2 in the engine, because the combustion chamber of the test
engines contain a "non-reactive" catalyst. For his fuel to provide power
increases, he has to utilise heat energy that is normally lost. A-21 is just
naphtha ( effectively unleaded gasoline without oxygenates ) and water
( about 55% ), with small amouts of winterizing and anti-corrosive additives.
If the magic catalyst is not present, conventional IC engines will not
perform as efficiently, and may possibly be damaged if A-21 is used. The
only modification is a new set of spark plugs, and it is also claimed that
the fuel can replace both diesel and gasoline.
It has been claimed that test results of A-21 fuel emissions have shown
significant reductions in CO2 ( 50% claimed - who is surprised when the fuel
is 55% water? :-) ), CO, HCs, NOx and a 70% reduction in diesel particulates
and smoke. It's claimed that 70% of the exhaust stream consists of water
vapour. He has formed a joint venture company with Caterpillar called
Advanced Fuels. U.S. patent #5,156,114 ( Aqueous Fuel for Internal Combustion
Engines and Combustion Method ) was granted to Mr.Gunnerman in 1992.
9.8.3 Propylene Oxide
Propylene oxide ( CH3CH(O)CH2 = 1,2 epoxypropane ) has apparently been
used in racing fuels, and some racers erroneously claim that it behaves
like nitrous oxide. It is a fuel that has very desirable volatility,
flammability and autoignition properties. When used in engines tuned for
power ( typically slightly rich ), it will move the air-fuel ratio closer
to stoichiometric, and the high volatility, high autoignition temperature
( high octane ), and slightly faster flamespeed may improve engine
efficiency with hydrocarbon fuels, resulting in increased power without
major engine modifications. This power increase is, in part, due to the
increase in volumetric efficiency from the requirement for less oxygen
( air ) in the charge. PO is a suspected carcinogen, and so should be
handled with extreme care.

Relevant properties include [116]:- Avgas
Propylene Oxide 100/130 115/145
Density (g/ml) 0.828 0.72 0.74
Boiling Point (C) 34 30-170 30-170
Stoichiometic Ratio (vol%) 4.97 2.4 2.2
Autoignition Temperature (C) 464 440 470
Lower Flammable Limit (vol%) 2.8 1.3 1.2
Upper Flammable Limit (vol%) 37 7.1 7.1
Minimum Ignition Energy (mJ) 0.14 0.2 0.2
Nett Heat of Combustion (MJ/kg) 31.2 43.5 44.0
Flame Temperature (C) 2087 2030 2030
Burning Velocity (m/s) 0.67 0.45 0.45
9.8.4 Nitromethane
Nitromethane ( CH3NO2) - usually used as a mixture with methanol to reduce
peak flame temperatures - also provides excellent increases in volumetric
efficiency of IC engines - in part because of the lower stoichiometric
air-fuel ratio (1.7:1 for CH3NO2) and relatively high heats of vaporisation
( 0.56 MJ/kg for CH3NO2) result in dramatic cooling of the incoming charge.
4CH3NO2 + 3O2 -> 4CO2 + 6H20 + 2N2
The nitromethane Specific Energy at stoichiometric ( heat of combustion
divided by air-fuel ratio ) of 6.6, compared to 2.9 for iso-octane,
indicates that the fuel energy delivered to the combustion chamber is
2.3 times that of iso-octane for the same mass of air. Coupled with
the higher flame temperature ( 2400C ), and flame speed (0.5 m/s), it has
been shown that a 50% blend in methanol will increase the power output by
45% over pure methanol, however knock also increased [28].
9.9 What about alternative oxidants?
9.9.1 Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous oxide ( N2O ) contains 33 vol% of oxygen, consequently the combustion
chamber is filled with less useless nitrogen. It is also metered in as a
liquid, which can cool the incoming charge further, thus effectively
increasing the charge density. With all that oxygen, a lot more fuel can
be squashed into the combustion chamber. The advantage of nitrous oxide is
that it has a flame speed, when burned with hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels,
that can be handled by current IC engines, consequently the power is
delivered in an orderly fashion, but rapidly. The same is not true for
pure oxygen combustion with hydrocarbons, so leave that oxygen cylinder on
the gas axe alone :-). Nitrous oxide has also been readily available at a
reasonable price, and is popular as a fast way to increase power in racing
engines. The following data are for common premixed flames [131].

Temperature Flame Speed
Fuel Oxidant ( C ) ( m/s )
Acetylene Air 2400 1.60 - 2.70
" Nitrous Oxide 2800 2.60
" Oxygen 3140 8.00 - 24.80
Hydrogen Air 2050 3.24 - 4.40
" Nitrous Oxide 2690 3.90
" Oxygen 2660 9.00 - 36.80
Propane Air 1925 0.45
Natural Gas Air 1950 0.39
Nitrous oxide is not yet routinely used on standard vehicles, but the
technology is well understood.
9.9.2 Membrane Enrichment of Air
Over the last two decades, extensive research has been performed on the
use of membranes to enrich the oxygen content of air. Increasing the oxygen
content can make combustion more efficient due to the higher flame
temperature and less nitrogen. The optimum oxygen concentration for existing
automotive engine materials is around 30 - 40%. There are several commercial
membranes that can provide that level of enrichment. The problem is that the
surface area required to produce the necessary amount of enriched air for an
SI engine is very large. The membranes have to be laid close together, or
wound in a spiral, and significant amounts of power are required to force
the air along the membrane surface for sufficient enriched air to run a
slightly modified engine. Most research to date has centred on CI engines,
with their higher efficiencies. Several systems have been tried on research
engines and vehicles, however the higher NOx emissions remain a problem
Subject: 10. Historical Legends

10.1 The myth of Triptane
[ This post is an edited version of several posts I made after JdA posted
some claims from a hot-rod enthusiast reporting that triptane + 4cc TEL
had a rich power octane rating of 270. This was followed by another
post that claimed the unleaded octane was 150.]
In WWII there was a major effort to increase the power of the aviation
engines continuously, rather than just for short periods using boost fluids.
Increasing the octane of the fuel had dramatic effects on engines that could
be adjusted to utilise the fuel ( by changing boost pressure ). There was a
12% increase in cruising speed, 40% increase in rate of climb, 20% increase
in ceiling, and 40% increase in payload for a DC-3, if the fuel went from 87
to 100 Octane, and further increases if the engine could handle 100+ PN fuel
[134]. A 12 cylinder Allison aircraft engine was operated on a 60% blend of
triptane ( 2,2,3-trimethylbutane ) in 100 octane leaded gasoline to produce
2500hp when the rated take-off horsepower with 100 octane leaded was 1500hp
Triptane was first shown to have high octane in 1926 as part of the General
Motors Research Laboratories investigations [135]. As further interest
developed, gallon quantities were made in 1938, and a full size production
plant was completed in late 1943. The fuel was tested, and the high lead
sensitivity resulted in power outputs up to 4 times that of iso-octane, and
as much as 25% improvement in fuel economy over iso-octane [14].
All of this sounds incredibly good, but then, as now, the cost of octane
enhancement has to be considered, and the plant producing triptane was not
really viable. The fuel was fully evaluated in the aviation test engines,
and it was under the aviation test conditions - where mixture strength is
varied, that the high power levels were observed over a narrow range of
engine adjustment. If turbine engines had not appeared, then maybe triptane
would have been used as an octane agent in leaded aviation gasolines.
Significant design changes would have been required for engines to utilise
the high antiknock rating.
As an unleaded additive, it was not that much different to other isoalkanes,
consequently the modern manufacturing processes for aviation gasolines are
alkylation of unsaturated C4 HCs with isobutane, to produce a highly
iso-paraffinic product, and/or aromatization of naphthenic fractions to
produce aromatic hydrocarbons possessing excellent rich-mixture antiknock
So, the myth that triptane was the wonder antiknock agent that would provide
heaps of power arose. In reality, it was one of the best of the iso-alkanes
( remember we are comparing it to iso-octane which just happened to be worse
than most other iso-alkanes), but it was not _that_ different from other
members. It was targeted, and produced, for supercharged aviation engines
that could adjust their mixture strength, used highly leaded fuel, and wanted
short period of high power for takeoff, regardless of economy.
The blending octane number, which is what we are discussing, of triptane
is designated by the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 45 survey
as 112 Motor and 112 Research [52]. Triptane does not have a significantly
different blending number for MON or RON, when compared to iso-octane.
When TEL is added, the lead response of a large number of paraffins is well
above that of iso-octane ( about +45 for 3ml TEL/US Gal ), and this can lead
to Performance Numbers that can not be used in conventional automotive
engines [14].

10.2 From Honda Civic to Formula 1 winner.
[ The following is edited from a post in a debate over the advantages of
water injection. I tried to demonstrate what modifications would be required
to convert my own 1500cc Honda Civic into something worthwhile :-).]
There are many variables that will determine the power output of an engine.
High on the list will be the ability of the fuel to burn evenly without
knock. No matter how clever the engine, the engine power output limit is
determined by the fuel it is designed to use, not the amount of oxygen
stuffed into the cylinder and compressed. Modern engines designs and
gasolines are intended to reduce the emission of undesirable exhaust
pollutants, consequently engine performance is mainly constrained by the
fuel available.
My Honda Civic uses 91 RON fuel, but the Honda Formula 1 turbocharged 1.5
litre engine was only permitted to operate on 102 Research Octane fuel, and
had limits placed on the amount of fuel it could use during a race, the
maximum boost of the turbochargers was specified, as was an additional
40kg penalty weight. Standard 102 RON gasoline would be about 96 (R+M)/2 if
sold as a pump gasoline. The normally-aspirated 3.0 litre engines could use
unlimited amounts of 102RON fuel. The F1 race duration is 305 km or 2 hours,
and it's perhaps worth remembering that Indy cars then ran at 7.3 psi boost.
Engine Standard Formula One Formula One
Year 1986 1987 1989
Size 1.5 litre 1.5 litre 1.5 litre
Cylinders 4 6 6
Aspiration normal turbo turbo
Maximum Boost - 58 psi 36.3 psi
Maximum Fuel - 200 litres 150 litres
Fuel 91 RON 102 RON 102 RON
Horsepower @ rpm 92 @ 6000 994 @ 12000 610 @ 12500
Torque (lb-ft @ rpm) 89 @ 4500 490 @ 9750 280 @ 10000

The details of the transition from Standard to Formula 1, without
considering engine materials, are:-
1. Replace the exhaust system. HP and torque both climb to 100.
2. Double the rpm while improving breathing, you now have 200hp
but still only about 100lb-ft of torque.
3. Boost it to 58psi - which equals four such engines, so you have
1000hp and 500lb-ft of torque.
Simple?, not with 102 RON fuel, the engine/fuel combination would knock
the engine into pieces, so....
4. Lower the compression ratio to 7.4:1, and the higher rpm is a
big advantage - there is much less time for the end gases to
ignite and cause detonation.
5. Optimise engine design. 80 degree bank angles V for aerodynamic
reasons, and go to six cylinders = V-6
6. Cool the air. The compression of 70F air at 14.7psi to 72.7psi
raises its temperature to 377F. The turbos churn the air, and
although they are about 75% efficient, the air is now at 479F.
The huge intercoolers could reduce the air to 97F, but that
was too low to properly vaporise the fuel.
7. Bypass the intercoolers to maintain 104F.
8. Change the air-fuel ratio to 23% richer than stoichiometric
to reduce combustion temperature.
9. Change to 84:16 toluene/heptane fuel - which complies with the
102 RON requirement, but is harder to vaporise.
10.Add sophisticated electronic timing and engine management controls
to ensure reliable combustion with no detonation.
You now have a six-cylinder, 1.5 litre, 1000hp Honda Civic.
For subsequent years the restrictions were even more severe, 150 litres
and 36.3 maximum boost, in a still vain attempt to give the 3 litre,
normally-aspirated engines a chance. Obviously Honda took advantage
of the reduced boost by increasing CR to 9.4:1, and only going to 15%
rich air-fuel ratio. They then developed an economy mode that involved
heating the liquid fuel to 180F to improve vaporisation, and increased
the air temp to 158F, and leaned out the air-fuel ratio to just 2% rich.
The engine output dropped to 610hp @ 12,500 ( from 685hp @ 12,500 and
about 312 lbs-ft of torque @ 10,000 rpm ), but 32% of the energy in
the fuel was converted to mechanical work. The engine still had crisp
throttle response, and still beat the normally aspirated engines that
did not have the fuel limitation. So turbos were banned. No other
F1 racing engine has ever come close to converting 32% of the fuel
energy into work [136].
In 1995 the FIA listed a detailed series of acceptable ranges for
typical components in racing fuels for events such as F1 races, along
with the introduction of detailed chromatographic "fingerprinting" of
the hydrocarbon profile of the fuel [137]. This was necessary to prevent
novel formulations of fuels, such as produced by Honda for their turbos.
Subject: 11. References

11.1 Books and Research Papers

1. Modern Petroleum Technology - 5th edition.
Editor, G.D.Hobson.
Wiley. ISBN 0 471 262498 (1984).
- Chapter 1. G.D.Hobson.
2. Hydrocarbons from Fossil Fuels and their Relationship with Living
I.R.Hills, G.W.Smith, and E.V.Whitehead.
J.Inst.Petrol., v.56 p.127-137 (May 1970).
3. Reference 1.
- Chapter 9. R.E.Banks and P.J.King.
4. Petroleum Formation and Occurance
B.P.Tissot and D.H.Welte
Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0 387 08698 0 (1978)
- Chapter 1.
5. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry - 5th edition.
Editor, B.Elvers.
VCH. ISBN 3-527-20123-8 (1993).
- Volume A23. Resources of Oil and Gas.
6. BP Statistical Review of World Energy - June 1995.
- Proved Reserves at end 1994. p.2.
6a. How Technology has Confounded US Gas Resource Estimators
Oil & Gas J. 24 October 1994

7. 1995 National Assessment of U.S. Oil and Gas Resources.
U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1118
U.S. Geological Survey Information Services
P.O. Box 25286, Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225
8. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology - 4th edition.
Editor M.Howe-Grant.
Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52681-9 (1993-)
- Volume 1. Alcohol Fuels.
9. Midgley: Saint or Serpent?.
Chemtech, December 1989. p.717-725.
10. ?
T.Midgley Jr., T.A.Boyd.
Ind. Eng. Chem., v.14 p.589,849,894 (1922).

11. Measurement of the Knock Characteristics of Gasoline in terms of a
Standard Fuel.
G. Edgar.
Ind. Eng. Chem., v.19 p.145-146 (1927).

12. How Gasoline Has Changed
SAE 932828 (1993)
13. Gasoline Additives
SAE 902104 (1990)
14. The Effect of the Molecular Structure of Fuels on the Power and
Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines.
Ind. Eng. Chem., v.36 p.1079-1085 (1944).
15. Experiments with MTBE-100 as an Automobile Fuel.
K.Springer, L.Smith.
Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels.
- Proceedings, v.1 p.53 (1993).
16. Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment
John Wiley and Sons (1995)
- Transportation Fuels - Automotive Gasoline
L.M.Gibbs p.2675-2698

17. Oxygenates for Reformulated Gasolines.
W.J.Piel, R.X.Thomas.
Hydrocarbon Processing, July 1990. p.68-73.
18. Initial Mass Exhaust Emissions from Reformulated Gasolines
Technical Bulletin No.1 (December 1990)
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program
Coordinating Research Council Inc.
219 Perimeter Center Parkway, Suite 400.
Atlanta, Georgia 30346-1301

19. Mass Exhaust Emissions Results from Reformulated Gasolines
Technical Bulletin No.4 (May 1991)
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program
20. Exhaust Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants using RFGs
Technical Bulletin No.5 (June 1991)
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program
21. The Chemical Kinetics of Engine Knock.
C.K.Westbrook, W.J. Pitz.
Energy and Technology Review, Feb/Mar 1991. p.1-13.
22. The Chemistry Behind Engine Knock.
Chemistry & Industry (UK), 3 August 1992. p.562-566.

23. A New Look at High Compression Engines.
D.F.Caris and E.E.Nelson.
SAE Paper 812A. (1958).
24. Problem + Research + Capital = Progress
Ind. Eng. Chem., v.31 p.504-506 (1939).
25. Dying for Work: Workers' Safety and Health in 20th Century America.
Edited by D.Rosner & G.Markowitz.
Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-31825-4 (1987).

26. Tetraethyl Lead Poison Hazards
Ind. Eng. Chem., v.17 p.827-828 (1925).
27. Reference 1.
- Chapter 20. K.Owen.
28. Automotive Fuels Reference Book - 2nd edition
K.Owen and T.Coley
SAE. ISBN 1-56091-589-7 (1995)
29. Role of Lead Antiknocks in Modern Gasolines.
A.J.Pahnke and W.E.Bettoney
SAE Paper 710842 (1971) 32pp.

29a. A Heavy Responsibility.
New Scientist p.12-13. 27 July 1996
30. Automotive Gasolines - Recommended Practice
SAE J312 Jan93.
- Section 3.
SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994).
31. EPA told not to ban Ethyl's fuel additive
Chemical & Engineering News, 24 April 1995 p.8.
32. Reference 8.
- Volume 12. Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels

33. The Science of Petroleum. Oxford Uni. Press (1938).
Various editors.
Section 11. Anti-knock Compounds. v.4. p.3024-3029.
G. Calingaert.
34. Refiners have options to deal with reformulated gasoline.
G.Yepsin and T.Witoshkin.
Oil & Gas Journal, 8 April 1991. p.68-71.
35. Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratios of Automotive Fuels - Recommended
SAE J1829 May92.
SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994).

36. Chemical Engineers' Handbook - 5th edition
R.H.Perry and C.H.Chilton.
McGraw-Hill. ISBN 07-049478-9 (1973)
- Chapter 3.
37. Alternative Fuels
MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-25813-4 (1980)
- Appendix 4.
38. Automotive Gasolines - Recommended Practice.
SAE J312 Jan93.
SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994).
39. Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel.
ASTM D 4814-94d.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, v.05.03. ISBN 0-8031-2218-7 (1995).
40. Criteria for Quality of Petroleum Products.
Editor, J.P. Allinson.
Applied Science. ISBN 0 85334 469 8
- Chapter 5. K.A.Boldt and S.T.Griffiths.
41. Research Report on Reformulated Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
ASTM RR: D02-1347 ( December 1994 )
ASTM 1916 Race Street Philadelphia, PA 190103-1187
42. Federal Reformulated Gasoline
Chevron Technical Bulletin FTB 4 (1994)
43. Meeting the Challenge of Reformulated Gasoline.
R.J. Schmidt, P.L.Bogdan, and N.L.Gilsdorf.
Chemtech, February 1993. p.41-42.
43a. Formulating a Response to the Clean Air Act.
M.R.Khan, J.G.Reynolds.
Chemtech, June 1996 p.56-61.
44. The Relationship between Gasoline Composition and Vehicle Hydrocarbon
Emissions: A Review of Current Studies and Future Research Needs.
D. Schuetzle, W.O.Siegl, T.E.Jensen, M.A.Dearth, E.W.Kaiser, R.Gorse,
W.Kreucher, and E.Kulik.
Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements v.102 s.4 p.3-12. (1994)
45. Reference 37.
- Chapter 5.
46. Intake Valve Deposits: engines, fuels and additive effects
Automotive Engineering, January 1989. p.49-53.
47. Intake Valve Deposits' Impact on emissions.
Automotive Engineering, February 1993. p.25-29.
48. Deposit Control Additives for Future Gasolines - A Global Perspective
- paper presented at the 27th International Symposium on
Advanced Transportation Applications.
Aachen, Germany. October 31 - November 4, 1994.
49. Texaco to introduce clean burning gasoline.
Oil & Gas Journal, 28 February 1994. p.22-23.

50. Additives to have key role in new gasoline era.
Oil & Gas Journal, 11 February 1991. p.53-57.

51. Gasoline Ads Canceled: Lack of Truth Cited
Wall Street Journal, Section 2, p.1 (21 July 1994)
52. Knocking Characteristics of Pure Hydrocarbons.
ASTM STP 225. (1958)
53. Health Effects of Gasoline.
Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements v.101. s.6 (1993)
54. Odor and Health Complaints with Alaskan Gasolines.
S.L.Smith, L.K.Duffy.
Chemical Health & Safety, May/June 1995. p.32-38.
55. Speciated Measurements and Calculated Reactivities of Vehicle Exhaust
Emissions from Conventional and Reformulated Gasolines.
Environ. Sci. Technol., v.26 p.1206-1216 (1992).
56. Effect of Fuel Structure on Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine.
2. Naphthene and Aromatic Fuels.
E.W.Kaiser, W.O.Siegl, D.F.Cotton, R.W.Anderson.
Environ. Sci. Technol., v.26 p.1581-1586 (1992).
57. Determination of PCDDs and PCDFs in Car Exhaust.
A.G.Bingham, C.J.Edmunds, B.W.L.Graham, and M.T.Jones.
Chemosphere, v.19 p.669-673 (1989).
58. Effects of Fuel Sulfur Levels on Mass Exhaust Emissions.
Technical Bulletin No.2 (February 1991)
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program
59. Effects of Fuel Sulfur on Mass Exhaust Emissions, Air Toxics, and
Technical Bulletin No.8 (February 1992)
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program
60. Emissions Results of Oxygenated Gasolines and Changes in RVP
Technical Bulletin No.6 (September 1991)
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program
61. Reactivity Estimates for RFGs and MeOH/Gasoline Mixtures
Technical Bulletin No.12 (June 1993)
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program
62. A New Formula for Fighting Urban Ozone.
Environ. Sci. Technol., v.29 n.1 p.36A-41A (1995).
63. Volatile Organic Compounds: Ozone Formation, Alternative Fuels and
B.J.Finlayson-Pitts and J.N.Pitts Jr..
Chemistry and Industry (UK), 18 October 1993. p.796-800.
64. The rise and rise of global warming.
New Scientist, 26 November 1994. p.6.
65. Studies Say - Tentatively - That Greenhouse warming is here.
Science, v.268. p.1567-1568. (1995)
66. Energy-related Carbon Dixode Emissions per Capita for OECD Countries
during 1990.
International Energy Agency. (1993)
67. Market Data Book - 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995 editions.
Automobile News
- various tables
68. BP Statistical Review of World Energy - June 1994.
- Crude oil consumption p.7.
69. Automotive Gasolines - Recommended Practice
SAE J312 Jan93.
- Section 4
SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994).
70. The Rise and Fall of Lead in Petrol.
Phys. Technol., v.18 p.158-164 (1987)
71. Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Metals: Environmental and Occupational
Occurance and Exposure.
Edited by L.Fishbein, A.Furst, M.A.Mehlman.
Princetown Scientific Publishing. ISBN 0-911131-11-6 (1987)
"Lead" p.211-243.
72. E.C. seeks gasoline emission control.
Hydrocarbon Processing, September 1990. p.43.
73. Health Effects of Gasoline Exposure. I. Exposure assessment for U.S.
Distribution Workers.
T.J.Smith, S.K.Hammond, and O.Wong.
Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements. v.101 s.6 p.13 (1993)
74. Atmospheric Chemistry of Tropospheric Ozone Formation: Scientific and
Regulatory Implications.
B.J.Finlayson-Pitts and J.N.Pitts, Jr.
Air & Waste, v.43 p.1091-1100 (1993).
75. Trends in Auto Emissions and Gasoline Composition.
Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements. v.101 s.6 p.5 (1993)
76. Reference 8.
- Volume 9. Exhaust Control, Automotive.
77. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling
Vehicle Emissions.
J.G.Calvert, J.B.Heywood, R.F.Sawyer, J.H.Seinfeld
Science v261 p37-45 (1993).
78. Radiometric Determination of Platinum and Palladium attrition from
Automotive Catalysts.
R.F.Hill and W.J.Mayer.
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., NS-24, p.2549-2554 (1977).
79. Determination of Platinum Emissions from a three-way
catalyst-equipped Gasoline Engine.
H.P.Konig, R.F.Hertel, W.Koch and G.Rosner.
Atmospheric Environment, v.26A p.741-745 (1992).
80. Alternative Automotive Fuels - SAE Information Report.
SAE J1297 Mar93.
SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994).
81. Lean-burn Catalyst offers market boom.
New Scientist, 17 July 1993. p.20.
82. Catalysts in cars.
Chemtech, September 1990. p.551-555.
83. Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles.
G.L.Henriksen, W.H.DeLuca, D.R.Vissers.
Chemtech, November 1994. p.32-38.
84. The great battery barrier.
IEEE Spectrum, November 1992. p.97-101.
85. Improving Automobile Efficiency
J.DeCicco, M.Ross
Scientific American, December 1994. p.30-35.
86. Use market forces to reduce auto pollution.
W.Harrington, M.A.Walls, V.McConnell.
Chemtech, May 1995. p.55-60.
87. Exposure of the general Population to Gasoline.
Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements. v.101 s.6 p.27-32 (1993)
88. Court Ruling Spurs Continued Debate Over Gasoline Oxygenates.
Chemical & Engineering News, 26 September 1994. p.8-13.
89. Court Voids EPA rule on ethanol use in Fuel
Chemical & Engineering News, 8 May 1995. p.7-8.
90. The Application of Formaldehyde Emission Measurement to the
Calibration of Engines using Methanol as a Fuel.
P.Waring, D.C.Kappatos, M.Galvin, B.Hamilton, and A.Joe.
Sixth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels.
- Proceedings, v.2 p.53-60 (1984).
91. Emissions from 200,000 vehicles: a remote sensing study.
P.L.Guenther, G.A.Bishop, J.E.Peterson, D.H.Stedman.
Sci. Total Environ., v.146/147 p.297-302 (1994)
92. Remote Sensing of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions.
S.H.Cadle and R.D.Stephens.
Environ. Sci. Technol., v.28 p.258A-264A. (1994)
93. Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the Third Annual CRC-APRAC
On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop.
S.H.Cadle, R.A.Gorse, D.R.Lawson.
Air & Waste, v.43 p.1084-1090 (1993)

94. On-Road Emission Performance of Late-Model TWC-Cars as Measured by
Remote Sensing
Ake Sjodin
Air & Waste, v.44 p.397-404 (1994)
95. Emission Characteristics of Mexico City Vehicles.
S.P.Beaton, G.A.Bishop, and D.H.Stedman.
J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. v.42 p.1424-1429 (1992)
96. Enhancements of Remote Sensing for Vehicle Emissions in Tunnels.
G.A.Bishop, D.H.Stedman and 12 others from GM, EPA etc.
Air & Waste v.44 p.168-175 (1994)

97. The Cost of Reducing Emissions from Late-Model High-Emitting
Vehicles Detected Via Remote Sensing.
J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. v.42 p.921-925 (1992)
98. On-road Vehicle Emissions: US studies.
Sci.Total Environ. v.146/147 p.209-215 (1994)
99. IR Long-Path Photometry: A Remote Sensing Tool for Automobile
G.A.Bishop, J.R.Starkey, A.Ihlenfeldt, W.J.Williams, and D.H.Stedman.
Analytical Chemistry, v.61 p.671A-677A (1989)
100. A Cost-Effectiveness Study of Carbon Monoxide Emissions Reduction
Utilising Remote Sensing.
G.A.Bishop, D.H.Stedman, J.E.Peterson, T.J.Hosick, and P.L.Guenther
Air & Waste, v.42 p.978-985 (1993)
101. A presentation to the California I/M Review Committee of results of
a 1991 pilot programme.
D.R.Lawson, J.A.Gunderson
29 January 1992.
102. On-Road Vehicle Emissions: Regulations, Costs, and Benefits.
S.P.Beaton, G.A.Bishop, Y.Zhang, L.L.Ashbaugh, D.R.Lawson, and
Science, v.268 p.991-995. (1995)
103. Reference 33.
Methods of Knock Rating. 15. Measurement of the Knocking
Characteristics of Automotive Fuels. v.4. p.3057-3065.
J.M.Campbell, T.A.Boyd.

104. Standard Test Method for Knock Characteristics of Motor and Aviation
Fuels by the Motor Method.
ASTM D 2700 - 92. IP236/83
Annual Book of ASTM Standards v.05.04 (1994).
105. Standard Test Method for Knock Characteristics of Motor Fuels by the
Research Method.
ASTM D 2699 - 92. IP237/69
Annual Book of ASTM Standards v.05.04 (1994).
106. High Sensitivity of Certain Gasolines Remains a Problem.
Hydrocarbon Processing, July 1994. p.11.
107. Preparation of distillates for front end octane number ( RON 100C )
of motor gasoline
IP 325/82
Standard Methods for Analysis and Testing of Petroleum and Related
Products. Wiley. ISBN 0 471 94879 9 (1994).
108. Octane Enhancers.
D.Simanaitis and D.Kott.
Road & Track, April 1989. p.82,83,86-88.

109. Specification for Aviation Gasolines
ASTM D 910 - 93
Annual Book of ASTM Standards v.05.01 (1994).
110. Reference 1.
- Chapter 19. R.A.Vere
111. Technical Publication - Motor Gasolines
Chevron Research and Technology Company (1990)
112. Automotive Sensors Improve Driving Performance.
Ceramic Bulletin, v.71 p.905-913 (1992).
113. Water Addition to Gasoline - Effect on Combustion, Emissions,
Performance, and Knock.
SAE Technical Paper 820314 (1982).
114. Reference 37.
- Chapter 7.
115. Exhaust Valve Recession with Low-Lead Gasolines.
Automotive Engineering, November 1987. p.72-76.
116. Investigation of Fire and Explosion Accidents in the Chemical, Mining
and Fuel-Related Industries - A Manual.
Joseph M. Kuchta.
US Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 680 (1985).
117. Natural Gas as an Automobile Fuel, An Experimental study.
R.D.Fleming and J.R.Allsup.
US Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Mines Report 7806 (1973).
118. Comparative Studies of Methane and Propane as Fuels for Spark Ignition
and Compression Ignition Engines.
G.A.Karim and I.Wierzba.
SAE Paper 831196. (1983).
119. Some Considerations of the Safety of Methane, (CNG), as an Automotive
Fuel - Comparison with Gasoline, Propane, and Hydrogen Operation.
SAE Paper 830267. (1983).
120. Natural Gas (Methane), Synthetic Natural Gas and Liquified Petroleum
Gases as fuels for Transportation.
R.D.Fleming, R.L.Bechtold
SAE Paper 820959. (1982).
121. The Outlook for Hydrogen.
Popular Science, October 1993. p.66-71,111.
122. Hydrogen as the Fuel for a Spark Ignition Otto Cycle Engine
SAE Paper 821200. (1982).
123. Hydrogen as a Fuel for Vehicle Propulsion
K.S.Varde, G.G.Lucas.
Proc.Inst.Mech.Engrs. v.188 26/74 p.365-372 (1974).

124. Reference 8.
- Volume 13. Hydrogen Energy.
125. Reference 8.
- Volume 11. Fuel Cells.
126. The Clean Machine.
Technology Review, April 1994. p.21-30.
127. Fuel Cells: Energy Conversion for the Next Century.
S.Kartha, P.Grimes.
Physics Today, November 1994. p.54-61.
128. Hybrid car promises high performance and low emissions.
M. Valenti.
Mechanical Engineering, July 1994. p.46-49.
129. Water-Gasoline Fuels -- Their Effect on Spark-Ignition Engine
Emissions and Performance.
B.D.Peters, R.F.Stebar.
SAE Technical Paper 760547 (1976)
130. ?
Automotive Industries Magazine, December 1994.
131. Instrumental Methods of Analysis - 6th edition.
H.H.Willard, L.L.Merritt, J.A.Dean, F.A.Settle.
D.Van Nostrand. ISBN 0-442-24502-5 (1981).
132. Research into Asymmetric Membrane Hollow Filter Device for Oxygen-
Enriched Air Production.
A.Z.Gollan. M.H.Kleper.
Dept.of Energy Report DOE/ID/12429-1 (1985).

133. New Look at Oxygen Enrichment. I. The diesel engine.
H.C.Watson, E.E.Milkins, G.R.Rigby.
SAE Technical Paper 900344 (1990)
134. Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry - 4th edition.
Longmans. (1949).
- Petroleum
135. Detonation Characteristics of Some Paraffin Hydrocarbons.
W.G.Lovell, J.M.Campbell, and T.A.Boyd.
Ind. Eng. Chem., v.23 p.26-29. (1931)
136. Secrets of Honda's Horsepower Heroics.
C. Csere.
Car & Driver May 1991. p.29.

137. Light Distillate Fuels for Transport.
J. Institute of Energy. v.68 p.199-212 September 1995

11.2 Suggested Further Reading
1. Automotive Fuels Reference Book - 2nd edition
K.Owen and T.Coley
SAE. ISBN 1-56091-589-7 (1995)

2. Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment
John Wiley and Sons (1995)
- Transportation Fuels - Automotive Gasoline
L.M.Gibbs p.2675-2698
3. Alternative Fuels for Road Vehicles
Computational Mechanics Publications ISBN 1-56252-225-6 (1994).
4. Hydrocarbon Fuels.
MacMillan. (1975)

5. Alternative Fuels
MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-25813-4 (1980)

6. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology - 4th edition.
Editor, M.Howe-Grant.
Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52681-9 (1993)
- especially Alcohol Fuels, Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels, Hydrogen
Energy and Fuel Cells chapters.
7. The Automotive Handbook. - any edition.
8. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals - 1st edition.
McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-100499-8 (1988)

9. Advanced Engine Technology
Edward Arnold ISBN 0-340-568224 (1995)
10. Alternative Engines for Road Vehicles
Computational Mechanics Publications ISBN 1-56252-224-8 (1994).

11. SAE Handbook, volume 1. - issued annually.
SAE. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994).
- especially J312, and J1297.
12. Proceedings of the xxth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels.
- Held every two years and most of the 10 conferences have lots of
good technical information, especially the earlier ones.
- various publishers.
13. Alternative Transportation Fuels - An Environmental and Energy
Editor, D.Sperling.
Quorum Books. ISBN 0-89930-407-9 (1989).
14. The Gasohol Handbook.
V. Daniel Hunt.
Industrial Press. ISBN 0-8311-1137-2 (1981).
15. The Science of Petroleum.
Various Authors.
Oxford University Press. (1938).
- especially Part 4 "Detonation and Combustion".
16. Modern Petroleum Technology - any edition.
Editor, G.D.Hobson.
Wiley. ISBN 0-471-262498 ( 5th edition = 1984).

Comments and Suggestions:
Ed Comments: Very informative

I have a 944 Porshe Turbo and running 18 psi boost. With the adjustable wastegate I sometime wind this to 21psi for race application - I have appropriate race Head Gasket and Head bolts etc....

I have a degree in Chemistry as was looking at RON ratings of various fules, and as a guess?? I looked at Toluene as a RON increase to fuel. But I was too afreaid to use this as I did not know what amount to add. Can you give advice on this, will Toluene on its own, i.e add 1 litre to a 60 litre tank of fuel - will this work?
December 24, 2009
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: I am not sure. I have not created my own fuel blends.

I opened a post in our forums. A Pelican community member may be able to answer your question.
- Nick at Pelican Parts

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