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HomeTech Articles > Home Alignment

Pelican Technical Article:

Home Alignment

John Rogers
jrogers1@nassco.com


[Click on Photo]

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Figure 1

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Figure 2

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Figure 3

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Figure 4

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Figure 5

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Figure 6

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Figure 7

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Figure 8

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Figure 9

HOME TOE IN/OUT GAUGE CONSTRUCTION AND USE AND CAMBER MEASUREMENT

NOTE: This gauge is useful to check alignment at the races or at home especially if you have gone off course or hit some heavy bumps. Practice pulling the tape measure to get the same tension front and rear of the wheel when measuring.

1. Construction of the toe in/out gauges.

  • Get two pieces of 0.040 aluminum sheet, 24 inches x 18 inches.
  • Cut off each corner and smooth the edges.
  • Mark a line across the long dimension that is 6 inches from one side.
  • Bend the sheet 90 degrees at the line. The short side will sit on the ground (bottom) and the long side against the tire (side).
  • Mark two notches one inch deep on each side approximately 3 inches from the bottom.
  • Cut each notch wide enough for a tape measure to fit into. Smooth the edges. See picture 1
  • Cut carrying handles as noted in picture 2 if desired. They make it easier to more them around.
  • Make the second one EXACTLY the same as the first one.

2. Use of toe in/out gauges.

  • Park car on level ground with wheels pointed straight ahead and steering wheel centered.
  • Place a toe in gauge against each wheel as shown in picture 3.
  • Use a weight to hold the gauge steady as shown in picture 4.
  • Pass the tape measure under the car then go to the other side and hook the end into the slot as shown in picture 5.
  • Put the other end of the tape in the slot on the other side and pull the tape SNUG, but not so tight it deforms the aluminum gauge and record the measurement as shown in picture 6.
  • Repeat the last two steps for the other side of the wheel, recording the measurement.
  • Take the difference between the measurements of the front and rear of the tires then divide by 2 and that is the toe in/out per wheel in inches.

NOTE: If the front dimension is smaller than the rear dimension you have toe in, otherwise it is toe out.

Refer to the chart below to convert to minutes or degrees of toe. There are 60 minutes to one degree. A good rule of thumb is 1/16 inch toe in per wheel front and 1/8 inch toe in per wheel rear for a car doing autocrosses/time trials.

NOTE: This chart is based on a toe gauge that is 24 inches wide and will NOT be accurate for other WIDTHs.

Toe measurement 1/16 inch or 0.0625 inch = Toe angle 8.95251minutes
Toe measurement 1/8 inch or 0.125 inch = Toe angle 17.9051 minutes
Toe measurement 3/16 inch or 0.1875 inch = Toe angle 26.8578 minutes
Toe measurement inch or 0.25 inch = Toe angle 35.8106 minutes
Toe measurement 5/16 inch or 0.3125 inch = Toe angle 44.7638 minutes
Toe measurement 3/8 inch or 0.375 inch = Toe angle 53.7172 minutes
Toe measurement 7/16 inch or 0.4375 inch = Toe angle 1.04452 degrees
Toe measurement inch or 0.5 inch = Toe angle 1.19375 degrees
Toe measurement 9/16 inch or 0.5625 inch = Toe angle 1.343 degrees
Toe measurement 5/8 inch or 0.625 inch = Toe angle 1.49225 degrees
Toe measurement 11/16 inch or 0.6875 inch = Toe angle 1.64152 degrees
Toe measurement inch or 0.75 inch = Toe angle 1.79079 degrees
Toe measurement 13/16 inch or 0.8125 inch = Toe angle 1.94008 degrees
Toe measurement 7/8 inch or 0.875 inch = Toe angle 2.08938 degrees
Toe measurement 15/16 inch or 0.9375 inch = Toe angle 2.23869 degrees
Toe measurement 1 inch = Toe angle 2.38802 degrees

3. Camber measurement, perform after measurement of toe in.

  • Use a carpenter’s square and place against the wheel with small side on the floor.
  • Ensure the long side is vertical.
  • Measure the distance between the square and the lower rim edge in 32nds and record as shown in picture 7.
  • Measure the distance between the square and the upper rim edge in 32nds and record as shown in figure 8.
  • Subtract the lower reading from the upper reading and refer to the chart below to get the amount of negative camber.

NOTE: If the lower dimension is smaller than the upper dimension you have negative camber, otherwise it is positive camber. Refer to the chart below to convert to minutes or degrees of camber. There are 60 minutes to one degree. Camber settings will depend on what type of tire used and how the car is to be driven, but should probably never be positive!

NOTE: This chart is based on 15inch diameter wheels, the most common on 914’s it seems and will NOT be accurate for other diameters.

CAMBER MEASUREMENT BASED ON 15 INCH WHEELS

Camber measurement 1 - 32nds or 0.03125 inches = Camber angle 7.16201 minutes
Camber measurement 2 - 32nds or 0.0625 inches = Camber angle 14.324 minutes
Camber measurement 3 - 32nds or 0.09375 inches = Camber angle 21.4861 minutes
Camber measurement 4 - 32nds or 0.125 inches = Camber angle 28.6483 minutes
Camber measurement 5 - 32nds or 0.15625 inches = Camber angle 35.8106 minutes
Camber measurement 6 - 32nds or 0.1875 inches = Camber angle 42.9731 minutes
Camber measurement 7 - 32nds or 0.21875 inches = Camber angle 50.1358 minutes
Camber measurement 8 - 32nds or 0.25 inches = Camber angle 57.2987 minutes
Camber measurement 9 - 32nds or 0.28125 inches = Camber angle 1.07436 degrees
Camber measurement 10 - 32nds or 0.3125 inches = Camber angle 1.19375 degrees
Camber measurement 11 - 32nds or 0.34375 inches = Camber angle 1.31315 degrees
Camber measurement 12 - 32nds or 0.375 inches = Camber angle 1.43255 degrees
Camber measurement 13 - 32nds or 0.40625 inches = Camber angle 1.55196 degrees
Camber measurement 14 - 32nds or 0.4375 inches = Camber angle 1.67137 degrees
Camber measurement 15 - 32nds or 0.46875 inches = Camber angle 1.79079 degrees
Camber measurement 16 - 32nds or 0.5 inches = Camber angle 1.91022 degrees
Camber measurement 17 - 32nds or 0.53125 inches = Camber angle 2.02966 degrees
Camber measurement 18 - 32nds or 0.5625 inches = Camber angle 2.1491 degrees
Camber measurement 19 - 32nds or 0.59375 inches = Camber angle 2.26856 degrees
Camber measurement 20 - 32nds or 0.625 inches = Camber angle 2.38802 degrees
Camber measurement 21 - 32nds or 0.65625 inches = Camber angle 2.5075 degrees
Camber measurement 22 - 32nds or 0.6875 inches = Camber angle 2.62699 degrees
Camber measurement 23 - 32nds or 0.71875 inches = Camber angle 2.74649 degrees
Camber measurement 24 - 32nds or 0.75 inches = Camber angle 2.866 degrees
Camber measurement 25 - 32nds or 0.78125 inches = Camber angle 2.98552 degrees
Camber measurement 26 - 32nds or 0.8125 inches = Camber angle 3.10505 degrees
Camber measurement 27 - 32nds or 0.84375 inches = Camber angle 3.2246 degrees
Camber measurement 28 - 32nds or 0.875 inches = Camber angle 3.34417 degrees
Camber measurement 29 - 32nds or 0.90625 inches = Camber angle 3.46374 degrees
Camber measurement 30 - 32nds or 0.9375 inches = Camber angle 3.58334 degrees
Camber measurement 31 - 32nds or 0.96875 inches = Camber angle 3.70294 degrees
Camber measurement 32 - 32nds or 1 inches = Camber angle 3.82257 degrees

Comments and Suggestions:
Dick Graham Comments: How about posting a chart that shows a - 16 '" wheel - 17" wheel - 18" wheel
As you have given us the 15 " wheel and say the chart only works on a 15" wheel. There are not that many 15" wheels out there any more. Please advise. thanks.
January 15, 2012
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: If we get a chance to add this info we will. Thanks for the feedback. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
enderw88 Comments: For those looking for other wheel diamters:
camber in degrees = arcsin camber distance/wheel diameter


August 29, 2011
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Thanks for the additional Info. We appreciate it.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
Litesonic Comments: just curious if there was a chart for 16" wheels. Thanks!
July 5, 2011
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: If we get a chance to add this info we will. Thanks for the feedback - Nick at Pelican Parts  
targawerk Comments: Good technique, before making any adjustments, ensure that bushings are in spec. and wheels are not warped. To adjust 911 rear camber/toe... loosendon't remove 19mm bolts.
Use ecentric bolts to change position rear bolt for camber, front for toe Later cars have only one, and it adjusts both talk about fun!
May 14, 2010
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Thanks for the additional Info. We appreciate it.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
Greg Comments: Do you know of any charts for 16", 17" wheels?
March 2, 2010
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: If we get a chance to add this info we will. Thanks for the feedback - Nick at Pelican Parts  
Cal Comments: I had the Toe in & Camber adjusted on my 1971 911 Targa. The front looks good. However, the rear camber is -.2 & -1.2 -- The rear Toe is .11 & .17 If I understand this correctly, the Toe is fine. The rear Camber is pretty far out of specs. The garage told me it was adjusted as far as they were able. Is there a 'trick' we don't know about to get these closer to the required stats ? Thanks, Cal
September 25, 2009
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: On these older 911 tubs, it's sometimes difficult to get the specs properly set. This has a lot to do with rust and torsional stability of the frame. Accidents and bad repairs can also cause problems. Finally, as the cars just plain get old they tend to sag a bit more (like us). There's plenty of performance suspension options that you can use to get these back into proper spec, but for a normal street car, I wouldn't worry about it too much. - Wayne at Pelican Parts  
ius260385 Comments: This is great, but how do you actually adjust the toe in and camber?
September 21, 2009
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: It's different for many cars. The most common way is to change the adjustment rod on the tie rods that attach the front spindles to the steering rack. - Wayne at Pelican Parts  

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