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Timing Belt Replacement
 
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Pelican Technical Article:

Timing Belt Replacement

Jared Fenton

Time:

5 hours5 hrs

Tab:

$50 to $100

Talent:

*****

Tools:

13mm/30mm sockets, impact wrench, crankshaft lock, 3mm, 5mm, 7mm hex keys, T30 Torx driver, torque wrench

Applicable Models:

Volvo C30 T5 (2008-13)
Volvo C30 T5 R-Design (2008-13)

Parts Required:

Timing belt, timing belt tensioner, idler roller

Hot Tip:

Check the tensioner and idler pulleys for wear and/or noise

Performance Gain:

Peace of mind

Complementary Modification:

Replace water pump

Replacing the timing belt is one of the most important maintenance tasks for the five-cylinder Volvo T5 engine. As the engine ages and mileage climbs, an old, worn-out timing belt can possibly break, causing catastrophic engine damage. A broken timing belt typically causes the valves to hit the tops of the pistons, bending the valves and/or destroying the pistons. A broken timing belt can indeed lead to the complete destruction of the engine.

To avoid this fate, replace the timing belt every 60,000 miles. If you live in a dry climate (like the American Southwest), or if you don't drive your car often, then I recommend replacing the belt more often. In dry climates, belts can become brittle and worn much more quickly. If your car sits for long periods of time, the belts take on the bends and shapes of the pulleys while the car is parked. Both circumstances increase the likelihood of belt failure.

One other thing to consider is replacing the water pump while you have the timing belt removed. The water pump is driven directly off the timing belt and even then, access is a bit difficult. It would also be very frustrating to replace the belt, only to have the water pump go out a few days later. See our article on Water Pump Replacement for more information.

Getting to the timing belt requires the removal of many components in the engine compartment. Jack up the car and remove the left front tire as well as the front wheel liner. You'll also need to remove the air filter housing, the starter, the engine belts and the coolant expansion tank. See our articles on Jacking up Your C30, Front Wheel Liner Removal, Air Filter Housing Removal, Engine Belt Replacement, Starter Replacement and Coolant Expansion Tank Replacement for more information.

Begin by locating the 30mm nut (green arrow) holding the center of the crankshaft pulley to the crankshaft.
Figure 1

Begin by locating the 30mm nut (green arrow) holding the center of the crankshaft pulley to the crankshaft. I recommend using an impact wrench to loosen the nut. Otherwise, the whole motor will turn. Volvo makes a special tool that holds the crank stationary, however it costs about as much as an electric impact wrench. When re-installing the 30mm nut, torque to 180Nm (132 ft.lbs.).

Next loosen and remove the four 13mm bolts (green arrows) from the pulley.
Figure 2

Next loosen and remove the four 13mm bolts (green arrows) from the pulley. You should be able to break these free without having to secure the crank pulley. When re-installing these nuts, torque to 25Nm (18ft/lbs.) plus an additional 60-degree turn.

You may want to hit the open thread holes and the area around the pulley with a good penetrant spray and let it sit for a while.
Figure 3

You may want to hit the open thread holes and the area around the pulley with a good penetrant spray and let it sit for a while. I found it very difficult to remove the pulley. Again, Volvo sells a special tool to remove the pulley. I simply used a steering wheel puller threaded into two of the outer holes.

You'll be able to see the timing belt (green arrow) once the pulley is removed.
Figure 4

You'll be able to see the timing belt (green arrow) once the pulley is removed. I highly recommend putting a small layer of anti-seize compound on the mounting flange for the pulley. This will make it easier to remove the pulley for the next time the belt is replaced.

Thread the 30mm nut back onto the mounting flange and rotate the engine clockwise until you see the notch cast into the face (green arrow) line up with the edge of the casting rib (yellow arrow) on the engine block.
Figure 5

Thread the 30mm nut back onto the mounting flange and rotate the engine clockwise until you see the notch cast into the face (green arrow) line up with the edge of the casting rib (yellow arrow) on the engine block. This procedure locates Top Dead Center (TDC) on cylinder number one. Locating TDC on the engine assures that the cams are in the correct position when replacing the belt. Only rotate the engine clockwise.

Shown here is a crankshaft lock for the Volvo T5 engine.
Figure 6

Shown here is a crankshaft lock for the Volvo T5 engine. Technically, you don't need to lock the crankshaft to replace the timing belt, although it does provide a little piece of mind.

Behind the starter is the access plug (green arrow) for the crankshaft lock.
Figure 7

Behind the starter is the access plug (green arrow) for the crankshaft lock.

Use a 7mm hex driver to loosen and remove the access plug.
Figure 8

Use a 7mm hex driver to loosen and remove the access plug.

Push the crankshaft lock into the access hole until it sits flush as shown here.
Figure 9

Push the crankshaft lock into the access hole until it sits flush as shown here. If you are not at TDC, the lock will not slide in. Thus, the lock verifies you are actually at TDC when inserted.

Now move up to above the engine and carefully remove the front plastic cover (green arrow).
Figure 10

Now move up to above the engine and carefully remove the front plastic cover (green arrow). You'll need to carefully release the cover from the bottom edges (yellow arrows) and pull it out.

Once the front cover is removed, you'll see the two camshaft pulleys with the integrated variable valve timing (VVT) units mounted on the front.
Figure 11

Once the front cover is removed, you'll see the two camshaft pulleys with the integrated variable valve timing (VVT) units mounted on the front. Check that both the intake (front) and exhaust (rear) camshaft pulleys have the TDC mark (green arrow) lining up with the notch (yellow arrow) cut into the plastic timing belt cover. This means that the cams are "timed" correctly. Now remove the upper timing belt cover.




You'll now want to place a floor jack with a block of wood or cardboard under the oil pan as shown here.
Figure 12

You'll now want to place a floor jack with a block of wood or cardboard under the oil pan as shown here. The left side motor mount must be removed to access the timing belt. The floor jack keeps the engine from falling down.

Loosen and remove the two 17mm bolts (green arrows) holding the cross brace and mount to the chassis.
Figure 13

Loosen and remove the two 17mm bolts (green arrows) holding the cross brace and mount to the chassis. Remove the cross brace form the engine bay.

Loosen and remove the two 17mm bolts (green arrows) and maneuver the mount out of the engine bay.
Figure 14

Loosen and remove the two 17mm bolts (green arrows) and maneuver the mount out of the engine bay.

Loosen and remove the T30 Torx screw (green arrow) and pull the front timing belt cover off the engine.
Figure 15

Loosen and remove the T30 Torx screw (green arrow) and pull the front timing belt cover off the engine.

I like to mark each pulley and VVT unit (green arrow) with a Sharpie to make the timing marks a bit easier to see.
Figure 16

I like to mark each pulley and VVT unit (green arrow) with a Sharpie to make the timing marks a bit easier to see. This also helps when removing the VVT units from the camshaft. You can also see the belt routing from the top as it crosses over the camshaft pulleys (yellow arrows) and over the idler pulley (purple arrow).

This picture shows the routing of the timing belt from below, the cogged side driving the water pump pulley (green arrow) and the smooth side riding on the tensioner (yellow arrow) before it loops around the crankshaft and back to the top.
Figure 17

This picture shows the routing of the timing belt from below, the cogged side driving the water pump pulley (green arrow) and the smooth side riding on the tensioner (yellow arrow) before it loops around the crankshaft and back to the top. Removing the belt requires moving the belt tensioner enough to slip the belt over. This is done by loosening the 10mm bolt (purple arrow) and rotating the tensioner clockwise enough to insert a small hex key through two holes (blue arrow). The tensioner is turned by inserting a 5mm hex key up above (red arrow). It's nearly impossible to take a picture of this due to the cross member being in the way. The next picture clears it up a bit more. Once the tension has been relieved, remove the timing belt.

Shown here is the timing belt tensioner removed from the engine for purposes of clarity.
Figure 18

Shown here is the timing belt tensioner removed from the engine for purposes of clarity. What you want to do is turn the arm (green arrow) clockwise with a 5mm hex key until you can insert a 3mm hex key through the two holes (yellow arrow). Doing this locks the tensioner in place. Also note the cutout at the top (purple arrow) this notch fits into a rib cast into the engine block. Inspect the bearing for wear, noise or free play. If there is any, replace the tensioner. When installing the new belt, carefully take up the slack in the tensioner and remove the hex key to unlock it.

And here's a picture of what you should see with the tensioner in-situ and the belt removed.
Figure 19

And here's a picture of what you should see with the tensioner in-situ and the belt removed. Again, note the arm (green arrow) and the hex key locking it in place. When installing the new belt, carefully take up the slack in the tensioner and remove the hex key. Let the adjuster arm free and the tensioner should take up all the slack in the belt. Remove the crankshaft lock and turn the engine through a full 360 degrees clockwise. Check that the TDC marks line up both at the camshaft pulleys and the crankshaft pulley.

Also be sure to inspect the idler roller for noise or free play.
Figure 20

Also be sure to inspect the idler roller for noise or free play. If any are encountered, replace the roller. The roller is mounted to a plate which is then bolted to the engine. There are two 10mm nuts that hold it in place. Keep in mind that removing these two nuts is done by feel. You can barely see them. Once the new belt is installed, installation of all the other components is the reverse of removal.


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Comments and Suggestions:
Matt Comments: This article mentions nothing about rotating the crank a quarter turn and back in order to release the tension from the VVT system. This is an essential step and must be performed before the old timing belt tensioner is released prior to taking the old belt off.
April 22, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Here is a note from the article author:

The P1 Chassis (C30 and others) use two VVT units on both cams. They are controlled by oil pressure via two control solenoids.. There is no way to rotate them independently of the camshaft once the cam locking tool is installed. The VVT unit has an inner and outer hub with vanes inside. Kinda like a torque converter.

A good analogy would be trying to roll-start a car with an automatic transmission.

It should be pretty obvious. You can put the VVT units on in any orientation, provided that the cams are locked down.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
MV Comments: When you get the crank pulley off and put the pulley bolt back on,do you have to turn the crank a 1/4 turn forward and back from tdc to "lock" the vvt units and avoid a cel when it's all back together? Or will this be avoided as long as everything is timed correctly and "locking" the vvt units is not necessary?
January 27, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: If timed correctly you should be Ok. I usually install the belt, then tension it, install pulley and recheck marks after rotating the engine. That way I catch an error before reassembly. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
TK Comments: Hi

I drive C30 T5, now I am hearing some noise from the bonnet, a friend of mine say the belt is finish but we not sure which one, do I have to replace a belt and how much will that cost me. I am in SA
January 18, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: There is one drive belt. I’m not the best with part numbers.

Give our parts specialists a call at 1-888-280-7799. They can figure out what part or repair kit you need.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 

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