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Reading Fuel Injection Fault Codes
 
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Pelican Technical Article:

Reading Fuel Injection Fault Codes

Jared Fenton

Time:

30 min

Tab:

$130

Talent:

*

Tools:

R5 Scan tool

Applicable Models:

R50 MINI Cooper Hatchback (2002-06)
R52 MINI Cooper Convertible (2005-08)
R52 MINI Cooper S Convertible (2005-08)
R53 MINI Cooper S Hatchback (2002-06)
R55 MINI Cooper Clubman Wagon (2008-14)
R55 MINI Cooper JCW Clubman Wagon (2009-14)
R55 MINI Cooper S Clubman Wagon (2008-14)
R56 MINI Cooper Hatchback (2007-13)
R56 MINI Cooper JCW Hatchback (2009-13)
R56 MINI Cooper S Hatchback (2007-13)
R57 MINI Cooper Convertible (2009-15)
R57 MINI Cooper JCW Convertible (2009-15)
R57 MINI Cooper S Convertible (2009-15)

Parts Required:

-

Hot Tip:

The Peake Research tool makes the whole process much easier

Performance Gain:

Better running engine when the problems are fixed

Complementary Modification:

Replace O2 sensor " the computer often shows this error code
How to Maintain and Modify your new MINI

This article is one in a series that have been released in conjunction with Pelican Parts' new book, How to Maintain and Modify your new MINI The book contains 240 pages of full color projects detailing everything from performance mods to changing your brake pads. With more than 500+ full-color glossy photos accompanying extensive step-by-step procedures, this book is required reading in any MINI owner's collection. The book is due to be released in late 2015. See The Official Book Website for more details.

All MINIs use a sophisticated Bosch engine management system called EMS2000; also called EMS2K. The EMS2000 (Engine Management System) is used on R50, R52 and R53 models. The second generation R56,R55,R57 use MEV 17.2 and MED 17.2 the "V" indicates Valvetronic (N12 engines) and the "D" in MED is for Direct Injection (N14 engines) the LCI (8/2010) R56,R55,R57 use MEVD 17.2.2 on N18 Cooper S and MEV 17.2.2 on N16 Cooper, all produced by Bosch.

This system (also called the Digital Motor Electronics or DME) is hands down the best overall fuel injection system that you can use when you consider price and performance. Ignition timing and fuel delivery are all controlled by a digital map that is recorded in software within the main fuel injection (DME) computer. The computer takes input from a variety of sensors that are located on the engine: cylinder head temperature, altitude (ambient air pressure), crank angle, throttle position, exhaust gas oxygen (mixture), ambient air temperature, and mass air flow. The DME software is programmed from the factory with certain performance characteristics (mostly conservative) so that the engine will react well under a host of varying conditions.

As with any electronic device, components can fail, triggering problems with the system. The Motronic system is designed to react to these failures and indicate them to the driver, so that they can be fixed. If one of the computer's sensors is not working properly, then the computer may not be able to successfully identify the current state of the engine and choose the appropriate fuel mixture or timing advance level. When this happens, the fuel mileage drops, engine performance suffers, emissions increase, and the car typically illuminates the 'check engine' light.

In order to accurately find the sensor and fix the problem, you will need to find out which error code is being triggered by the computer. Starting in 1996, all cars were equipped with OBD II, which was mandated by the US government, in order to standardize automotive repair and diagnostics (see Project for advanced monitoring of OBD II electronics). The OBD system is responsible for monitoring and checking all of the fuel injection sensors and systems in the vehicle, and turns on the 'check engine' lamp if it finds a problem or irregularity with one of them. The computer lodges a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) in the main computer until it is read and reset. Disconnecting the battery does not reset the codes - they need to be manually reset. For OBD II compliant cars the codes can only be read using a scan tool.

When the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) developed the OBD-II system, they mandated that the DTC be a 5 digit code. Here is a break down of what the codes mean. Typically, the list of codes presented follows this format. For more information on the specific codes on the MINI Cooper, I recommend consulting the Bentley manual for MINI Coopers as it provides a extensive list of all of the DTCs and the meanings. This table is meant to show a general reference should you encounter any DTCs.

1st digitMeaning
PPowertrain
BBody
CChassis
2nd digitMeaning
0SAE (Generic code to OBD-II)
1MINI (a code specific to the MINI)
3rd digitMeaning
0Total system
1Air/fuel induction
2Fuel injection
3Ignition system or misfire
4Auxiliary emission control
5Vehicle speed & idle control
6ECM inputs/outputs
7Transmission
4th and 5th DigitsMeaning
Individual circuits or components

The tool that I like to use is the Peak Research R5/EMX Fault Code Tool, available from PelicanParts.com. This tool is compatible with all MINI's. It displays all of the engine fault codes, and also has the option of resetting the oil service lamp.

Open the OBD-II cover, turn the ignition to 'ON' but do not start and then plug the R5/EMX into the OBD-II port. With the tool plugged in, it will 'spin' the LED lights for a few moments, and then display the letters 'Fc' which stands for Fault Codes. (See Figure 3) Click 'Go' on the tool, and it will read the codes one by one from the computer. The way that the codes are read from a 2 digit counter is as follows. The first sequence in the code reading will always display 'P' the second sequence will display the second and third digits in the code '12' for example. The third sequence will display the fourth and fifth digits '34' for example. So the whole code will flash P...12...34. The code will keep repeating until you press the 'Go' button to display the next DTC if stored. If no fault codes are present, the tool will flash two dashed lines '- -'

You need to have a copy of the tool's operating manual in order to decode the proper codes for your car. The list of codes is quite long, however the manual is included with the tool and is available for download at Peake Research's website: http://www.peakeresearch.com/manuals/emx1.zip

To reset the Check Engine or Service Engine Soon light, plug the R5/EMX into the port and wait until the 'Fc' light comes on. Next, press the 'Select' button until the display reads 'cE'. Next, press the 'Go' button and the R5/EMX will reset the light. To verify the reset, Unplug the tool and start the engine. The light should be off. NOTE: After a reset on some models with an automatic transmission, the automatic transmission light will be on. To clear the light, start the engine twice.

To reset the Oil Service light, plug the tool in and wait for the 'Fc' to display. Now press the 'Select' button until the tool displays 'oL' and press go. The tool will begin to count from 0 to 2. When finished, the tool will return to displaying 'Fc'

To reset the Inspection light, once again, plug the tool in and wait for the 'Fc' to display. Now press the 'Select' button until the tool displays 'IN' and press go. The tool will begin to count from 0 to 9. When finished, the tool will return to displaying 'Fc'

Shown here is the R5/EMX scan tool from Peake Research.
Figure 1

Shown here is the R5/EMX scan tool from Peake Research. This is an invaluable tool for diagnosing OBD-II codes as well as re-setting service, inspection and oil service lights.

Open the OBD-II cover port, turn the ignition key to on (but do not start) and plug the R5/EMX into the port.
Figure 2

Open the OBD-II cover port, turn the ignition key to on (but do not start) and plug the R5/EMX into the port.

To access the fault codes stored in your car's computer, simply plug in the R5/EMX and wait for the 'Fc' character to appear then press the 'Go' button.
Figure 3

To access the fault codes stored in your car's computer, simply plug in the R5/EMX and wait for the 'Fc' character to appear then press the 'Go' button.

The R5/EMX will display the '- -' character when there are no DTC's stored in the car's computer or after you have cleared all fault codes.
Figure 4

The R5/EMX will display the '- -' character when there are no DTC's stored in the car's computer or after you have cleared all fault codes.

To reset the Check Engine or Service Engine Soon light, plug the R5/EMX into the port and wait until the 'Fc' light comes on.
Figure 5

To reset the Check Engine or Service Engine Soon light, plug the R5/EMX into the port and wait until the 'Fc' light comes on. Next, press the 'Select' button until the display reads 'cE'. Next, press the 'Go' button and the

To reset the Oil Service light, plug the tool in and wait for the 'Fc' to display.
Figure 6

To reset the Oil Service light, plug the tool in and wait for the 'Fc' to display. Now press the 'Select' button until the tool displays 'oL' and press go. The tool will begin to count from 0 to 2. When finished, the tool will return to displaying 'Fc'

To reset the Inspection light, once again, plug the tool in and wait for the 'Fc' to display.
Figure 7

To reset the Inspection light, once again, plug the tool in and wait for the 'Fc' to display. Now press the 'Select' button until the tool displays 'IN' and press go. The tool will begin to count from 0 to 9. When finished, the tool will return to displaying 'Fc'

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