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Engine Management Systems
 
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Pelican Technical Article:

Engine Management Systems

Nick Czerula

Time:

1 hours1 hrs

Tab:

$100

Talent:

**

Tools:

Scan tool, code reader

Applicable Models:

BMW X5 (2000-06)

Parts Required:

Code reader

Hot Tip:

Start with a fully charged battery

Performance Gain:

Repair fault codes

Complementary Modification:

Do not clear fault codes until you think you have repaired the problem

BMW E53 cars (2000 - 2006 X5 sports-activity vehicle) are equipped with digital engine management systems (called Digital Motor Electronics or DME). The engine control module (ECM) in these systems is programmed with software for control of the fuel injection, ignition and other functions. BMW DME systems comply with second-generation on-board diagnostics (OBD II) standards.

Remember that your car may have been serviced before and had parts replaced with different size fasteners used in the replacement. The sizes of the nuts and bolts we give may be different from what you have so be prepared with different size sockets and wrenches.

Protect your eyes, hands and body from fluids, dust and debris while working on your vehicle. If you're working with the electrical system, disconnect the battery before beginning. Always catch fluids in appropriate containers and properly dispose of any fluid waste. Recycle parts, packaging and fluids when possible. Never work on your vehicle if you feel the task is beyond your ability.

Our vehicle may vary slightly from yours as models do change and evolve, as they grow older. If something seems different, let us know and share your info to help other users. Do you have questions or want to add to the article? Leave a comment below. When leaving a comment, please leave your vehicle information.

The table below summarizes the DME systems used in E53 cars:

 Model, Years Engine Engine Management
 3.0i 2001 - 2006 M54 3 liter 6-cylinder Siemens MS 43
 4.4i 2000 - 2003 M62 TU 4.4 liter V-8 Bosch ME 7.2
 4.4i 2004 - 2006 N62 4.4 liter Valvetronic V-8 Bosch ME 9.2.1
 4.6is 2002 - 2003 M62 TU 4.6 liter V-8 Bosch ME 7.2
 4.8is 2004 - 2006 N62 4.8 liter Valvetronic V-8 Bosch ME 9.2.1

Engine control module (ECM): The engine control module (DME) (red arrow) is mounted in the electronics-box (E-box) at the right rear of the engine compartment.
Figure 1

Engine control module (ECM): The engine control module (DME) (red arrow) is mounted in the electronics-box (E-box) at the right rear of the engine compartment. In MS 43 cars the ECM is flash-programmable to boost certain performance parameters, such as allowing for higher top rpms or increasing low-end torque. Two of these modifications are described in additional detail later. The transmission control module is mounted behind it (green arrow).

Fuel supply, fuel injection: An electrically operated fuel pump, located inside the fuel tank, supplies high-pressure fuel (approx.
Figure 2

Fuel supply, fuel injection: An electrically operated fuel pump, located inside the fuel tank, supplies high-pressure fuel (approx. 3.5 bar or 50 psi) to the engine fuel rail. The fuel rail in turn distributes fuel to the electronically actuated fuel injectors (red arrows). The ECM meters the fuel output of the injectors using pulse width signals. It varies the pulse width based on input signals. Inputs to the ECM include, the air intake volume using mass airflow sensor signal, the ambient and coolant temperature signals, the accelerator pedal signal, the crankshaft and camshaft position signals and the knock sensor signals.

Intake system: 6-cylinder: The M54 resonance / turbulence intake system (red arrow) in 6-cylinder models consists of two sets of three intake runners.
Figure 3

Intake system: 6-cylinder: The M54 resonance / turbulence intake system (red arrow) in 6-cylinder models consists of two sets of three intake runners. Resonance valves are used to vary the length of the runners in order to enhance low end torque at low engine speeds or allow high volume air flow at medium or high engine speeds. The intake manifold is also equipped with a 5.5mm turbulence port for each cylinder. These ports channel idle and low speed air from the idle speed control regulator to one intake valve in each cylinder. (There are two intake valves per cylinder.) Air rushing through one valve causes air swirl and more efficient fuel atomization in the cylinder.

Intake systems: V-8: In the M62 TU V-8 engine, a cast aluminum housing with eight arched intake runners, one to each cylinder, is supplied air from a central chamber (red arrow).
Figure 4

Intake systems: V-8: In the M62 TU V-8 engine, a cast aluminum housing with eight arched intake runners, one to each cylinder, is supplied air from a central chamber (red arrow). In the N62 Valvetronic V-8 engine a central housing is used with arched intake runners. Turning a rotor varies the length of the intake runners. The ECM controls the rotor drive unit mounted at the rear of the intake manifold.

Variable camshaft timing (VANOS): VANOS is the BMW term for variable camshaft timing.
Figure 5

Variable camshaft timing (VANOS): VANOS is the BMW term for variable camshaft timing. The ECM controls the amount of camshaft timing shift. VANOS uses engine oil pressure to vary camshaft timing, offering the following advantages: increased power, higher low end and medium speed torque, improved idle and fuel efficiency, elimination of external EGR plumbing (internal EGR), quicker warm-up and lower emissions. Several versions of VANOS are used in E53 engines: Models with M62 TU (V-8) engine are equipped with single VANOS; this system varies intake valve timing only. Models with M54 (6-cylinder) engine are equipped with dual VANOS (green arrow); this system operates independently on both intake and exhaust valve timing. Models with N62 (Valvetronic V-8) engine are equipped with bi-VANOS, which also operates on both intake and exhaust valve timing.

Throttle control, idle control: In E53 vehicles the throttle cable is eliminated and throttle actuation is completely electronic (drive-by-wire).
Figure 6

Throttle control, idle control: In E53 vehicles the throttle cable is eliminated and throttle actuation is completely electronic (drive-by-wire). In the M54 (6-cylinder) engine, the idle speed control valve is controlled by the ECM to bypass varying amounts of air around the closed throttle valve (red arrow). A separate idle speed control valve is eliminated in M62 TU (V-8) engine. Idle speed is not adjustable (green arrow).

In the N62 V-8 engine, the Valvetronic (red arrows) system uses hardware and software to eliminate the conventional throttle mechanism.
Figure 7

In the N62 V-8 engine, the Valvetronic (red arrows) system uses hardware and software to eliminate the conventional throttle mechanism. Instead of a throttle valve, intake air is regulated by adjusting valve lift. Each bank of the engine is equipped with a Valvetronic actuator motor (blue arrow), which operates a cam gear, eccentric shaft and intermediate levers to vary intake valve lift based on ECM signals. Similarly, the ECM controls idle speed by varying valve actuation.

Ignition and knock control: The ignition system uses one ignition coil per cylinder (red arrows).
Figure 8

Ignition and knock control: The ignition system uses one ignition coil per cylinder (red arrows). Each coil is mounted above a spark plug. Multiple sparks per ignition cycle are used to reduce emissions and extend spark plug life. Spark timing is controlled by the ECM using an ignition spark "map". Spark timing is not adjustable.

However, to prevent engine damage in case of adverse conditions or poor fuel quality, knock (detonation) sensors (green arrows) are mounted on the engine crankcase.
Figure 9

However, to prevent engine damage in case of adverse conditions or poor fuel quality, knock (detonation) sensors (green arrows) are mounted on the engine crankcase. These are microphones tuned to the frequency of engine knock to communicate such knock to the ECM. The ECM can respond to these signals by changing (usually retarding) ignition timing at one or more cylinders.

Exhaust manifolds and oxygen sensors: Oxygen sensor signals are used by the ECM to control fuel delivery.
Figure 10

Exhaust manifolds and oxygen sensors: Oxygen sensor signals are used by the ECM to control fuel delivery. In the M54 (6-cylinder) engine, the three front cylinders and three rear cylinders are each equipped with a separate exhaust manifold, each with an integrated catalytic converter. This allows the converters to heat up a very short time after a cold start. The manifolds are also equipped with 4 oxygen sensors, one before each catalyst and one after. In the M62 TU (V-8) engine, the exhaust manifold on each bank of cylinders has a built-in precatalyst with an oxygen sensor ahead of it. There is a second catalyst further back on each exhaust pipe and an oxygen sensor on each pipe behind that. The N62 (V-8) engine uses 4 oxygen sensors, 2 before the catalytic converters and 2 after the converters. The post-catalyst sensors are conventional heated zirconia units, but the precatalyst sensors are Bosch LSU planar wideband units, which can measure exhaust mixture in a wide range, from rich to extremely lean, very rapidly.

Reflashing the engine control module (ECM): There are two well-tested systems for reflashing (reprogramming) the ECM, depending on your vehicle year and model: Dinan Engine Software, designed for 2001 - 2005 models, programs the ECM to achieve an upper limit 240 rpm higher than stock.
Figure 11

Reflashing the engine control module (ECM): There are two well-tested systems for reflashing (reprogramming) the ECM, depending on your vehicle year and model: Dinan Engine Software, designed for 2001 - 2005 models, programs the ECM to achieve an upper limit 240 rpm higher than stock. This raises the vehicle power-band and also removes the vehicle top speed governor and gives the potential for greater road speed, smoother throttle response and reduced throttle response delay. The Shark Injector, designed for 1999 - 2000 models, reflashes the ECM to improve low-end torque. The car won't hesitate or lag, making it easier to drive. And with the extra torque you can drive in a higher gear and not have to downshift as often, thus improving fuel mileage. The Shark Injector may be upgraded via USB port, depending on your performance needs.

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Page last updated: Sat 12/3/2016 02:45:06 AM