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Engine Management Systems
 
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Pelican Technical Article:

Engine Management Systems

Nick Czerula

Time:

1 hours1 hrs

Tab:

$300

Talent:

*****

Tools:

ECM flash tool, supplied with software

Applicable Models:

BMW 525i/xi Sedan (2004-07)
BMW 528i xDrive Sedan (2009-10)
BMW 528i/xi Sedan (2008-10)
BMW 530i/xi Sedan (2004-07)
BMW 530xi Wagon (2006-07)
BMW 535i xDrive Sedan/Wagon (2009-10)
BMW 535i/xi Sedan (2008-10)
BMW 535xi Wagon (2008)
BMW 545i Sedan (2004-05)
BMW 550i Sedan (2006-10)
BMW M5 Sedan (2006-10)

Parts Required:

DME flash tool and software

Hot Tip:

Use this info to better understand your BMW E60 engine

Performance Gain:

Fuel economy and performance

Complementary Modification:

Upgrade DME software

E60 engine management systems--an overview

BMW E60 cars (2004 - 2010 5 Series) are equipped with digital engine management systems (called Digital Motor Electronics or DME). The engine control module (ECM) in these systems is programmed with software for control of fuel injection, ignition and other functions. BMW DME systems comply with second-generation on-board diagnostics (OBD II) standards.

The table below summarizes the DME systems used in E60 cars:

 Years, Models Engine Engine Management
 2004 - 2005, 525i, 530i M54 3.0 liter 6-cylinder Siemens MS 45.1
 2005 - 2005, 545i N62 4.4 liter valvetronic V-8 Bosch ME 9.2
 2005 - 2010 M5 S65 5 liter V-10 Siemens MS S65
 2006 - 2007, 525i, 525xi, 530i, 530xi N52 3.0 liter valvetronic 6-cylinder Siemens MSV70
 2006 - 2010, 550i N62 TU 4.8 leter valvetronic V-8 Bosch ME 9.2.2
 2008 - 2010, 528i, 528i XDrive N52K 3.0 liter valvetronic 6-cylinder Siemens MSV80
 2008 - 2010, 535i, 535i XDrive N54 3.0 liter twin-turbo 6-cylinder Siemens MSD80, MSD81


Engine control module (ECM): The engine control module (ECM or DME) (red arrow) is mounted in the electronics-box (E-box) at the right rear of the engine compartment.
Figure 1

Engine control module (ECM): The engine control module (ECM or DME) (red arrow) is mounted in the electronics-box (E-box) at the right rear of the engine compartment. In 6-cylinder models the ECM is flash-programmable to boost certain performance parameters, such as allowing for higher top rpms or increasing low-end torque. Two of these modifications are described in additional detail later.

Fuel supply, fuel injection: An electrically operated fuel pump, located inside the fuel tank, supplies high-pressure fuel to the engine fuel rail.
Figure 2

Fuel supply, fuel injection: An electrically operated fuel pump, located inside the fuel tank, supplies high-pressure fuel to the engine fuel rail. Nominal system fuel pressure (engine not running) is as follows, M54 and V-8 engine: approx. 3.5 bar (50 psi), N52 and N54 engine: approx. 5 bar (73 psi). In normally aspirated models (M54, N52 and 8-cylinder engines) the fuel rail in turn distributes fuel to the electronically actuated fuel injectors. The red arrows point to the 8-cylinder engine fuel injectors.

In turbocharged models (N54 engine), the fuel under system pressure is further pressurized by a mechanically driven pump to pressures as high as 200 bar (2,900 psi) before being routed to the fuel injectors (green arrow).
Figure 3

In turbocharged models (N54 engine), the fuel under system pressure is further pressurized by a mechanically driven pump to pressures as high as 200 bar (2,900 psi) before being routed to the fuel injectors (green arrow). The ECM meters the fuel output of the injectors using pulse width signals. It varies the pulse width based on input signals. Inputs to the ECM include: air intake volume using mass airflow sensor signal, ambient and coolant temperature signals, accelerator pedal signal, crankshaft and camshaft position signals, knock sensor signals.

Intake system 6-cylinder: The M54 resonance / turbulence intake system in 6-cylinder models consists of two sets of three intake runners.
Figure 4

Intake system 6-cylinder: The M54 resonance / turbulence intake system in 6-cylinder models consists of two sets of three intake runners. Resonance valves are used to vary the length of the runners in order to enhance low end torque at low engine speeds or allow high volume air flow at medium or high engine speeds. The M54 intake manifold (red arrow) is also equipped with a 5.5 mm turbulence port for each cylinder. These ports channel idle and low speed air from the idle speed control regulator to one intake valve in each cylinder. (There are 2 intake valves per cylinder.) Air rushing through one valve causes air swirl and more efficient fuel atomization in the cylinder. The N52 and N52K Valvetronic 6-cylinder engines are equipped with 3-stage variable intake runners in a system known as DISA. Valves in the intake manifold are actuated by pulse-width modulated ECM signals.

In the N54 6-cylinder engine, the turbocharger, intercooler and intake manifold (red arrow, just below intake air box) are an integrated system with pressure and temperature sensors and actuators in order to ensure that the volume of intake air is optimal for the engine operating conditions.
Figure 5

In the N54 6-cylinder engine, the turbocharger, intercooler and intake manifold (red arrow, just below intake air box) are an integrated system with pressure and temperature sensors and actuators in order to ensure that the volume of intake air is optimal for the engine operating conditions.

Intake system 8-cylinder: In the N62 Valvetronic V-8 engine a central intake housing is used with arched intake runners (red arrow).
Figure 6

Intake system 8-cylinder: In the N62 Valvetronic V-8 engine a central intake housing is used with arched intake runners (red arrow). The length of the intake runners is varied by turning a rotor. The ECM controls the rotor drive unit mounted at the rear of the intake manifold.

Variable camshaft timing (VANOS): VANOS is the BMW term for variable camshaft timing (green arrow).
Figure 7

Variable camshaft timing (VANOS): VANOS is the BMW term for variable camshaft timing (green arrow). The amount of camshaft timing shift is controlled by the ECM. VANOS uses engine oil pressure to vary intake and exhaust camshaft timing. VANOS provides the following benefits: increased power, higher low end and medium speed torque, improved idle and fuel efficiency, elimination of external EGR plumbing (internal EGR) and quicker warm-up and lower emissions.

Throttle control, idle control: In E60 vehicles the throttle cable is eliminated and throttle actuation is completely electronic (drive-by-wire).
Figure 8

Throttle control, idle control: In E60 vehicles the throttle cable is eliminated and throttle actuation is completely electronic (drive-by-wire). In the M54 (6-cylinder) engine, the idle speed control valve is controlled by the ECM to bypass varying amounts of air around the closed throttle valve.

The Valvetronic system in N52, N52K, N62 and N62 TU engines uses hardware and software to eliminate the conventional throttle mechanism.
Figure 9

The Valvetronic system in N52, N52K, N62 and N62 TU engines uses hardware and software to eliminate the conventional throttle mechanism. Instead of a throttle valve, intake air is regulated by adjusting valve lift. The engine is equipped with one or two Valvetronic actuator motor(s), which operate cam gear(s), eccentric shaft(s) and intermediate levers to vary intake valve lift based on ECM signals. Similarly, the ECM controls idle speed by varying valve actuation. The red arrows point to the Valvetronic motors on the 8-cylinder engine. The blue arrow inset photos points to the Valvetronic motor used on the NG6 style 6-cylinder engine.

Ignition and knock control: The ignition system uses one ignition coil per cylinder, with each coil mounted above a spark plug.
Figure 10

Ignition and knock control: The ignition system uses one ignition coil per cylinder, with each coil mounted above a spark plug. Multiple sparks per ignition cycle are used to reduce emissions and extend spark plug life. Spark timing is controlled by the ECM using an ignition spark "map". Spark timing is not adjustable. However, to prevent engine damage in case of adverse conditions or poor fuel quality, knock (detonation) sensors (green arrows) are mounted on the engine crankcase. These are microphones tuned to the frequency of engine knock and communicate such knock to the ECM. The ECM can respond to these signals by changing (usually retarding) ignition timing at one or more cylinders.

Exhaust manifolds and oxygen sensors: Oxygen sensor signals are used by the ECM to control fuel delivery.
Figure 11

Exhaust manifolds and oxygen sensors: Oxygen sensor signals are used by the ECM to control fuel delivery. E60 engines are equipped with two exhaust manifolds, each with an integrated catalytic converter. This allows the converters to heat up a very short time after a cold start. The manifolds are equipped with four oxygen sensors, one before each catalyst and one after. The yellow arrow points to the bank 1 pre-catalyst sensor. The green arrow points to the bank 2 pre-catalyst sensor. Reflashing the engine control module (ECM): Dinan engine software offers a well-tested system for reflashing (reprogramming) the ECM. Dinan Engine Software, designed for 2005 - 2011 models, programs the ECM to achieve an upper RPM limit higher than stock. This raises the vehicle power-band and also removes the vehicle top speed governor and gives the potential for greater road speed, smoother throttle response and reduced throttle response delay.

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Comments and Suggestions:
Melly Mel Comments: 2008 bmw 535i , won't start / immediately blowing fuel pump fuse .. where is fuel pump relay located ?
could that be the problem , or is it actually the low pressure fuel pump ?
August 30, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: I would assume a harness short. Inspect the top of the fuel tank for rodent damage.

http://www.pelicanparts.com/techarticles/BMW-E60/137-FUEL-Fuel_Pump_Replacement/137-FUEL-Fuel_Pump_Replacement.htm - Nick at Pelican Parts
 
Phil G Comments: 2004 530i. going up hill and suddenly asking for more power results in balking, like fuel starvation. But no codes registered. Has new plugs and coils, 207,000 miles.
Could it be time to replaced fuel pump? local BMW dealer shop has no suggestos.
April 12, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Could be an issue with the fuel pump. I would perform a fuel delivery system test. Check fuel pressure, volume and quality.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 

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