So you are thinking about buying a Porsche? If you take care before you buy, you will learn why the company motto during the 80's was "Nothing even comes close". The purpose of this article is to give some guidance to the prospective owner. While it is in no means all encompassing, and in no way a substitute for a mechanical inspection, it should give you a good baseline to start with. This article was written with the 944 in mind, but everything below applies to the 924S and the 968.
Picking your car:
The 944 series was produced in several variations from 1983 - 1991. The 944 replaced the 924 series, which ran from 1976 - 1982. The different versions are summarized below:
1983 - 1985-1 (Series 1)
2.5 Liter, 150 HP engine, 5 speed or automatic transmission. The easiest way to spot a series-1 car is the presence of a radio antenna on the fender. Also features the same interior as the 924.
1985-2 - 1986 (Series 2)
2.5 Liter, 150 HP engine, 5 speed or automatic. Car lightened by about 50 pounds, "classic" 944 interior, upgraded DME unit, power steering introduced.
1986 - 1988 (924S)
With a few exceptions, the car is mechanically identical to a 944 series-1 with a 924 body and interior. The philosophy behind this model was to reintroduce a Porsche with an MSRP less than $20,000.
1987 - 1988 (944 and 944S)
2.5 liter engine, horsepower slightly improved on the standard model, introduction of the 16-valve engine on the S model, S model up to 188 HP
1989 - 1991 (944 (1989 only) and 944S2 (1989 - 1991)
Standard 944 had a 16-valve, 2.7-liter engine; the S2 had a 3-liter engine. A Cabriolet version was introduced in 1989 (S2). 944 production ceased 1991.
1986 - 1989 (944 Turbo - a.k.a. 951 or 944T)
2.5 liter, 8-valve turbo charged engine. 1000 turbo charged S models were produced in 1988.
1992 - 1995 (968)
Designed to be the pinnacle of the 924/944 series. Mechanically it is an improved 944 S2 with a redesigned body which somewhat resembles the 928. 6 speed manual or optional Triptronic transmission. The 968 was not produced in large numbers. A few Turbo S models were produced (Rare), as well as 6 RS Turbo versions (None officially imported in the USA). The 968 was also available as a Cabriolet.
General buying tips:
First off, ask yourself, "Why am I buying this car, and what do I expect to get out of it?" If you are looking for a fun car, with fairly quick acceleration and excellent handling, any of the 944's will fit the bill.
Moving on to which model: Get the best one you can afford. Normally Aspirated (non-turbo) models generally run cheaper then the S models or the 951. You can expect to pay between $4,000 and $15,000 for a quality example. 968s are still new enough to command over $20,000. Do not fall in love and buy the first car that you see. Overall, the people who own these cars take excellent care of them. However, there are some that think nothing about spending $1000 on appearance and other goodies, and do little to maintain the car mechanically.
Although Porsches are fast cars, they were not designed to be drag racers. Though some in the series are quick off of the line (notably the 951 and the 968), the thrust of the design was superior handling, particularly at high speed. It is possible to modify the car to perform well from 0 - 60 and the ' mile, however, the costs are prohibitive and wear out engine components quickly.
To piggyback on the above, one important consideration to keep in mind is the relatively high cost of maintenance. Because it is a foreign car, and a rather affluent one at that, parts are more expensive than what you may be used to. Additionally, many mechanical procedures on the car are labor intensive. If you have an experienced Porsche mechanic work on your car, expect to pay between $65 - $90 per hour for labor. Therefore, it is not at all uncommon to take the car to the shop for relatively minor work and have a bill of more than $500 waiting for you. Cost of ownership can be greatly reduced by doing much of the maintenance yourself. Finally, I cannot stress this enough when you are looking to buy a Porsche: There is absolutely no substitute for a comprehensive inspection by a competent mechanic. If the car was not properly maintained, a $4 - $6,000 944 can turn into a $8 - $10,000 944 very quickly.
One final note on car values: Do not buy one with the intention that it will appreciate. Most of these cars were built in large quantities that preclude them from achieving true collector status. If you want a collector car in this series, look for one of the limited production cars and bring a large checkbook.
Picking Your Seller:
Any seller worth the trouble dealing with should have no qualms about providing you in advance, either by phone or fax/email: Pictures, copies of maintenance records, what scheduled maintenance is coming due, the phone number of the person who did the majority of the work on the car, and what small maintenance/repair items should be done. Avoid sellers that are vague about specified maintenance performed on the car, mechanical condition, physical condition of the interior and exterior, or what the car was used for, such as concours, daily driver, racing, etc.
Looking it over:
Ok, so now you are looking at the car, the current owner is there, extolling all the virtues of the car, trying to convince that his is simply the finest example left in the free world. News flash, it isn't, the finest example is at the museum in Stuttgart Germany, and it's not for sale. Here are a few things to look for on the car, take your time, and do not allow yourself to be rushed.
How does the car sit? On a stock US version, ground clearance between the rocker panel and the ground should be about 6 inches. If the car has been lowered to Euro specifications, you should have between 4.5 and 5 inches of clearance. Sagging at one corner/side of the car indicates incorrect ride HEIGHT or worn suspension components.
Paint: How does the paint look? Does it look like an orange peel? Is there paint on the rubber mirror and door handle seals? Does the paint on the outside of the car match the paint in the engine compartment or under the carpet/doorjambs? Are the stone-guard decals on the car, are they painted over? Is there a "Porsche" decal under the taillights? Is there a model emblem on the rear of the car? Does the color of the decal/emblem contrast with the paint; light colors have black decals and emblems, dark colors have silver. Any of the above strongly indicate that the car was painted. Since the cars are older, a paint job should not disqualify a car, but take the time to find out how the paint job was accomplished. A proper paint job would cost somewhere between $1500 - $3500, and entail media blasting; zinc-based primer, and several coats of paint, to include a clear coat. If the receipt is less than that, "Maaco" or some other discount auto paint facility probably did the work, and most likely, the paint was sprayed right over the original paint, expect it to crack.
Rust: All 944's were galvanized at the factory - if it is rusting, it was most likely in an accident or was maintained poorly. The only exception to this is the battery tray. This area is prone to corrosion due to original Porsche batteries leaking acid. It should be repaired since the rust will spread, and water will leak into the car.
Wheel Wells: Look for the black plastic liner, is it intact, is it even there? If not, it may have been removed in the course of body repair
Wheels: Look for curb rash or dents: When driving, does the car vibrate at speed? This could indicate a bent wheel. Porsche wheels are generally very expensive to replace; though you can sometimes pick up used ones cheaply. One note, many Porsche wheels are painted, don't confuse worn paint with physical damage. Do the wheels have wheel locks? Does the owner have the keys to the locks? The wheel locks that came with these models are no longer made. You can order key blanks from a few catalogs and have them cut. If you lose the keys, you must have the locks cut off. Porsche now sells a keyless wheel lock, costing about $75.
Bumpers: On the non-turbo models, is the front and rear bumper square to the rest of the body? If it is canted in on one side, the car was hit by something. This could entail nothing more than replacing a bumper shock, or could indicate hidden body damage. It is difficult to determine this on a turbo due to the car having a different nose and valence.
Alarm System: Is there a keyhole on the body behind the driver's door? Does the owner have a key for it? Porsche no longer sells keys for the system, though the dealer will be happy to sell you a new switch that comes with two keys for $150. If the owner has one key and you want to duplicate it, a Saab key will work.
Rear Hatch: For some reason, the hatch/glass is a problem area on these cars. They tend to leak. There are kits available to repair the leaks. Hatch replacement runs about $2000.
Under The Hood:
Look under the hood, is the engine clean? A steam-cleaned engine can indicate a well-maintained car or someone trying to hide an oil leak. Pull the dipstick, how does the oil look? Frothy oil indicates a head gasket leak. Run the oil through your fingers, it should be smooth with no grit.
Under-hood Insulation: This waffle-textured foam deteriorates with age, leaving your engine compartment a mess. About $100 to replace.
Belly Pan/Oil Pan:There should be a plastic pan under the engine. If it is there, run your finger on the upper surface; are there puddles of oil or other fluid? Check the oil pan. Does it have a huge dent on the bottom? This could indicate that the car was jacked up by the oil pan or the previous owner hit something. Oil pan replacement is rather expensive, with the part costing in the neighborhood of $500 and the labor running somewhere in the realm of 6 - 8 hours.
Oil Leaks:Do not accept the explanation "It's a Porsche, they always leak." That said, there are few places that the 2.5/2.7/3.0 engines do tend to leak, though generally, these leaks are small, and in most cases, you wouldn't know it was even leaking. So short answer, puddle under car, or belly pan swimming in oil/power steering fluid/coolant = bad thing.
Front main seal- can be replaced when you do a front seal job - this leak should be small and tends to run along the engine case.
Upper or Lower balance shaft rear O-ring - these leak very slowly, and the labor involved in replacing them is not worth the effort or expense unless you are doing other major work to the car. Generally, it is the lower balance shaft that leaks, as the heat from the exhaust tends to speed the wear of the O-ring.
Leaks that should make you think twice before buying:
Oil pan gasket: A real pain in the ass. In my area, getting this replaced costs around $600, $500 of which is labor.
Head gasket leaks: Labor intensive, special tools required. Depending on where it is leaking, secondary repairs might be necessary.
Oil cooler seals: if the coolant tank looks like someone spilled a chocolate malt in it - these are blown, the parts aren't that expensive, but the procedure is labor intensive.
Upper front engine seals: Particularly around the balance shafts and the cam and crank pulleys - oil can destroy the timing and balance shaft belts, which, if they break, will cause severe damage to the engine and your bank account. Look for oil dripping out of the timing belt cover.
Coolant Expansion Tank: Is it cracked, crazed, or warped? - The car may have overheated at some point in the past, which if bad enough, could warp or crack the head. Some yellowing of the tank is normal as it ages.
Belts: Check the condition of the belts. One note, belts on these cars tend to be exceptionally tight, with a maximum deflection of 2mm on the alternator belt, and 5 - 6mm on the power steering belt.
Alternator: Is the air duct from the driver's side front connected to the rear of the alternator? A supply of cool air greatly extends alternator life.
Tie Rods: Look for cracked boots and bent rods. Also, slide the boot on the steering rack side and look for leakage.
CV Joints: Squeeze the boots, look for cracks.
Transmission: Look for leaks. Additionally, look at the transmission fill and drain plugs that are located on the driver's side of the transmission. Are the drain plugs stripped out? Replacement plugs cost less than $5 each, getting the old ones out, especially if they are stripped, will raise your use of profanity to an art form. When you replace them, remember to only use 17 Ft-lbs. of torque
Brakes/Suspension: Look for evidence of leaks, either from the struts/shocks, brakes, or wheel hubs. On later models, the front brakes should have one fluid line and one wire running to the caliper, the rear brakes should have one fluid line, one wire, and one cable. Generally, the shocks/struts are durable, often lasting more than 100,000 miles; replacement, however, can be expensive
Brake Fluid Reservoir: Look for proper fluid level and evidence of leaks. Brake fluid should be changed every 12 - 24 months
Cooling Hoses: Look for Cracks, scuffing, or hoses that are spongy. Hoses are inexpensive to replace. If you have any doubt about the condition of the hoses, replace them.
Manual Steering: Make sure that it is indeed a manual steering rack, and not a power steering rack with the pump disconnected.
Power Steering: Look for leaks around the pulley and around the hose fittings, check the reservoir for proper fluid level. Note: Power steering hoses do tend to "seep" fluid, looking and feeling oily. Also, check to see if the car has the updated hose. The old version of the hose runs from the reservoir to the engine, where it is clamped near the water pump, and then down to the upper portion of the pump. The new version has the hose running directly from the reservoir to the pump.
Spark Plug Wires: Look for cracks in the insulation, or black streaks on the top of the engine around the wires. If possible, take the car into a garage or other dark area and start the engine. Does it look like the 4 thof July under the hood? Wires run anywhere from $60 - $300 depending on what you get. Factory wires run about $130.
Windshield Washers/Pump/Tank: The tanks tend to develop cracks and leak, while not expensive to replace, they can be a challenge to remove or install. Also, the washer pumps are prone to failure. If the tank doesn't leak, and the pump is working, but still no fluid is squirted out, either the nozzles are clogged, or the check valves are shot; neither of which are expensive.
944 85.5 or later (Series-2):
Ball Joints/Control Arms (a.k.a. A-Arms): The ball joint is not replaceable except by replacing the entire control arm ($200 - $500 each, replacing them in pairs is highly recommended) - look for cracked rubber boots and cracks or bends in the arm itself. When driving, a "pop" as you go over a bump is a good indicator of ball joint wear. Ball joint failure can cause all sorts of expensive secondary damage.
Give it the once over. Does it look good for its age? One word on dashboards - they crack. Invest in a good dash cover. You can order a new dashboard, but they are extremely expensive.
Smell: If the car smells like antifreeze, chances are good that the heater core is leaking. If the car is heavily perfumed, get down and smell the carpet. The smell of mold/mildew indicates a water leak somewhere.
Armrest/Cassette Box:The plastic hinge breaks eventually, costing about $25 to replace.
Tool Kit/Air Pump/Jack/Spare Tire: Does the car have these? Many times, they are missing; nobody really knows where all of these missing tool kits go. Very helpful to have in the car, and can be expensive to replace.
Clutch Pedal:Look for a leak around the rubber boot sticking out of the firewall. Drips or oil indicate the Clutch Master Cylinder is going bad, an easy fix. Check the pedal - it should be stiff with no "slack", meaning you feel resistance right away. If there is free play, the pedal needs adjustment, which is a simple do-it-yourself procedure. If the pedal feels spongy, the clutch master or slave cylinder is going bad, which fortunately, are not expensive to fix.
Parking Brake:Does it work? A properly adjusted parking brake should stop the car with the lever pulled 2 or 3 clicks. Otherwise, it needs adjustment or brake shoe replacement
On Engine Start:
Keys: Does the owner have original keys? Does the same key unlock the doors and start the engine? Are the keys worn? If you need different keys to unlock the doors and start the engine, either the door handles or the ignition was replaced. You will not have much luck going to K-Mart or Wal-Mart and buying a key blank that fits although sometimes, you can luck out and find a VW, Audi, or Saab key that will work. If your keys are worn, and your locks were never changed, you can, with proof of ownership, have a new set of keys made that match your car based on your VIN#. Porsche charges $36.00 per key, or $100 for a complete set.
Brakes:With the car off, pump the brake pedal until it firms up, then with your foot still on the brake pedal, start the car. If the pedal should sink slightly as the car started. Otherwise, the brake booster may be bad. A brake booster costs around $425, not including labor.
Motor Mounts:Does the car shake the fillings out of your teeth at idle? If so, the motor mounts are probably shot. Replacing them is not excessively expensive, but is labor-intensive.
AC system:Does it work? Porsche's are rumored not to have the best AC systems - actually, they have systems as good as any other car, but they are rather expensive to maintain, especially since the price of R-12 went up. So if it doesn't work, the owner didn't want, or couldn't afford to fix it.
Exhaust Leaks:The exhaust manifolds tend to crack with age. Replacement manifolds are not cheap. However, as long as the crack isn't gigantic, you can have it repaired by any competent welder for less than $100.
Steering Column Switches:A part that commonly fails. Parts cost anywhere from $30 - $200, not including labor.
Sunroof: Does it work? This can be an easy or expensive fix, depending on what is wrong.
The Test Drive:
The car should start up quickly. Did a cloud of black smoke or white smoke come billowing out? If so, the car either has bad rings, or a head gasket leak. 944s idle a little rough for about the first minute. After warm-up, the car should idle at 850 - 1000 RPM. Acceleration should be smooth, quick, with no hesitation or "flat spots". In a manual transmission, the shifting should be smooth, without grinding, which may indicate bad synchro rings. Neither should there be any clunking or clanking as you change gears. If there is, it could indicate a problem in the clutch or transmission. Groaning or popping noises while driving could indicate bad CV joints. A popping noise while going over bumps could indicate worn ball joints. On power steering equipped models, the steering should be tight, meaning that if you turn the wheel ' to ' inch, you should be moving in the direction the wheel was turned. Howling or other noises are indicative of problems. Brakes should be firm. Porsches do tend to be "stiffer" than most cars, thus being a little rougher over bumps. After the test drive, park the car in a different spot - let it sit for a few minutes and check again for leaks.
By this stage in your shopping, you have probably read in the ads about a car having maintenance records. What are they? In short, a receipt OR a dealer stamp in the warranty book for every major bit of mechanical work done to the vehicle. If the seller doesn't have any, especially for the time when he owned the car, walk away.
Some critical things to look for in maintenance records
Timing Belt/Balance Shaft Belt:The most critical maintenance item on the car. A broken timing belt will destroy your valves, resulting in a very expensive repair bill. Replacement every 30,000 - 35,000 miles. Additionally, the belt should be re-tensioned 1000 miles after installation, and every 15,000 miles after that. Belt replacement costs about $300 with parts and labor. You can have the belts tensioned for less than $100. Special tools are required to tension the belts properly
Front Engine Seals: These deteriorate over time, causing small leaks. The downside to this is, oil can destroy your timing belt. The individual seals are inexpensive, less than $100 to replace all of them. However, the labor involved with installing new seals can be. Approximately 1 - 2 hours labor for the basic seals, 4 - 7 hours to replace the seals that are "deeper" in the engine
Clutch (Manual transmission):When was it replaced, if ever? Factory clutch disks are prone to and will fail eventually - $1200 to $1500 with parts and labor. If it was replaced, find out with what - a spring centered clutch disk is preferred, as they tend to last a very long time.
Flex Plate (Automatic transmission):It will fail eventually, costing about $1200 to replace with parts and labor.
Valve job:This is what happens when the timing and balance shaft belts are not maintained. Repairs start at $1200.
Water Pump:They wear out eventually, some last 50,000+ miles, some last 100,000 miles, it's really a toss up. If it was replaced find out with what version of the water pump (early, mid or late). Not a difficult thing to replace, but is labor intensive, with special tools required.
Oxygen sensor:Should be replaced every 40,000 - 60,000 miles - Not an expensive item, an easy do-it-yourself.
951 Series: All of the above plus:
Turbo Charger:When was it last serviced? Turbo chargers do wear out eventually, requiring rebuilding or replacement.
16 Valve Engines: All of the above plus...
Chain Tensioner:When was the camshaft chain tensioner last serviced? These tend to wear out over time, causing the chain to break, causing all sorts of valve damage.
968: All of the above plus...
Transmission:When were the pinion bearings last serviced? Pinion bearings on these cars tend to wear quickly. Parts are not that expensive. However, replacing them is a very labor-intensive process.
Flywheel (Manual Transmission Only):If the clutch was serviced, was the flywheel serviced or replaced as well? The 968 uses a "Dual Mass" flywheel, costing over $1000 for the part alone.
Sprockets/Pulleys:When was the cam sprockets/pulleys changed or updated? Early 968s had a habit of breaking sprocket/pulley teeth, as well as shearing teeth off of the belts.
The Pre-purchase Inspection:
If everything above checks out and you are seriously considering buying the car, take it to a dealer or a shop that has experience with Porsches and have it inspected - Again, THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR THIS. This will set you back a couple of hundred dollars, but the mechanic can find hidden damage or things that require repair much easier than you can. Any major discrepancies will be noted and can be used to either reduce the asking price of the car or indicate that you should walk away.
Now That You Own One:
Congratulations! If everything above checks out, you've just bought yourself a very fine automobile. Now that you are a Porsche owner, here are a few things you will need.
Insurance:If you can afford it, full coverage with comprehensive is your best bet. With the cost of parts and repairs, you will have no problems meeting a $500 deductible for collision. Keep your comprehensive coverage at a $100 - $200 deductible. Call around for the best rates.
Towing:You will break down eventually, get the number of a few towing places that pull the car up onto a flatbed truck as opposed to a regular tow truck. Your local Porsche mechanic will give you a point in the right direction.
Your Mechanic: Build a good relationship with a mechanic that knows Porsches. If you are skilled and have the tools, you can perform a lot of repair work yourself. However, there will be times that you need professional assistance. Be wary of a garage that claims to work on Porsches, yet doesn't have any in the shop. Ask owners in your area for a recommendation.
Scheduled Maintenance:Maintain your timing belt! Change your belts every 30,000 miles, and have them tensioned at 1,000 miles after replacement and at 15,000 miles. For a manual transmission, replace the fluid every time you change your timing belt. For automatics, change it at 15,000-mile intervals.
Oil Changes:If you live in a warmer climate, 15W40/50 or 20W50 are your best bet. Change your oil every 3000 miles with quality motor oil. You can get 10000 miles out of synthetic oil, but the filter should be changed every 3-4000 miles. You will save lots of money if you do this yourself. Most oil change places want to charge extra for the oil (non-standard grade) and an extra charge because you require more oil than normally allowed (5.8 qt. or more). Additionally, many oil change places will charge you a premium on the filter since they most likely do not have it in stock.
Fuel Filter:Change it every 6 - 10,000 miles. Most likely, you will not find one in an auto parts store. Online/Catalogs or your Porsche dealer is the best source.
Spare Parts:With the exception of items like filters, if you can help it, avoid getting parts from a dealer, as they have the highest prices. Some general parts you can get from local auto parts stores. Your best source for most parts is from one of the online/catalog companies. Shop around, prices vary between catalogs/sites. Ask other owners where they get their parts. Avoid getting critical components such as alternators from retail stores, they tend to be cheaply rebuilt, spend the extra cash and get a proper part.
Books:If you are going to do your own maintenance, you are going to need some books. First thing to buy is the "Haynes" manual. It is not all encompassing, but it will give you a good starting point when it comes to repairs. If you really get into maintenance, you can invest in the factory service manuals.
Electrical:If you do any electrical work, the ground wire is brown.
Tools:Buy quality tools! Though they are more expensive initially, over time you will appreciate the investment. A good selection of quality screwdrivers, pliers, wrenches and sockets will serve you for many years. Though I am not advocating one brand over the other, Sears "Craftsman" or Lowe's "Kobalt" tools offer excellent quality and a lifetime warranty while costing less than the "Professional" tools like Snap-On or Mac. Additionally, as stated above, some repairs require specialty tools. Generally, these tools are available through your Porsche dealer or from online/catalog companies.
12-point star drives (a.k.a. "triple square", "Cheesehead") 6, 8, and 12mm (Snap On, about $20 each)
Sockets - get 12 point sockets if you can. You need shallow and deep sockets, some extensions and a few universal joints. You will need sockets with sizes ranging from 4 - 30mm.
Wrenches - combination set, 8 - 30mm, you may find it helpful to get 2 of some of the common sizes (10, 13, 15, 17, and 19mm). A set of flare wrenches and a set of stubby wrenches are helpful and can be added later.
Assorted screwdrivers and pliers
Soft faced hammer and a rubber mallet
Torx driver set
Metric Allen sockets and wrenches sized from-3 - 20mm works well.
Snap Ring Pliers - internal and external, Snap-On seems to have the best set around. Get the regular straight ones as well as the ones with the 90-degree tips.
Brake Bleeding Kit
Porsche Belt Tensioning Tool (with calibration bar): The Holy Grail of 944 maintenance $300 - $500. You need this tool any time you remove the timing or balance shaft belt. This tool will pay for itself after you remove the belts 3 or 4 times
Porsche Balance Shaft Locking Bar: About $35 - $50
Porsche Belt Tension Adjusting Wrench: About $35 - $50
Optional: Thermostat tool - a snap ring holds in the thermostat, which is a pain in the ass to remove. Many catalogs sell this tool, calling it "the water pump helper" for about $25. You won't use it often, but when you need it, you really need it
As stated earlier, Porsches are not drag racers. That said, there are a few upgrades you can do to squeeze some more horsepower out of the car without major or expensive modifications. Ask other owners and do some comparing.
Upgrading the ROM chip in the DME - Autothority chips seem to have the best reputation. Manufacturers claim this will give you up to 15 HP on a NA, more on a 951. This is much easier to accomplish on the series-2 cars, as the DME chip is removable. ($199 - $300)
Installing a better ignition system - This may or may not improve your horsepower, but will make the car run more efficiently. Kits from MSD or Jacobs are popular choices. ($150 - $400)
Changing to a K&N air filter - You can gain about 2 - 3 HP with this upgrade, as an added bonus, you will never buy another air filter again. ($60)
Upgrading your exhaust - Bursch, Borla, or Ansa are popular choices, Manufacturers claim anywhere from 10 - 30 HP gain. ($299 and up for the "Catback", an additional $299 and up for the headers)
Throttle Response Cam - No horsepower improvement, but you will get a quicker throttle response. ($50)
Porting your throttle body - increases airflow - supposedly provides increased HP, but I have yet to see any hard numbers. ($300)
Removing Catalytic Converter - Illegal in most states, but you can gain a few horsepower with a test pipe installed in its place.
Removing Balance Shaft Belt - 3 - 5 HP gain, at the expense of an engine with heavy vibration, accelerates the wear on the motor mounts.
Well, that's it, I hope you found this guide useful. If you think of anything else that I missed, please don't hesitate to let me know. Happy driving!
Michael Van Bibber (AFJuvat)