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Removing and Replacing Your Fuel Injectors
 
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Pelican Technical Article:

Removing and Replacing Your Fuel Injectors

Nick Czerula

Time:

2 hours2 hrs

Tab:

$400

Talent:

***

Tools:

Set of sockets (10mm, 13mm), flathead screwdriver

Applicable Models:

BMW 323Ci Coupe/Conv (1999-00)
BMW 323i Sedan/Wagon (1999-00)
BMW 325Ci Coupe/Conv (2001-06)
BMW 325i/xi Sedan/Wagon (2001-06)

Parts Required:

Fuel Injectors, fuel injector o-rings,

Hot Tip:

Work with a cool engine and relieve the fuel system pressure.

Performance Gain:

Clean and even flowing fuel injectors

Complementary Modification:

Replace with performance injectors

BMW E46 models with the 6-cylinder engine utilize one fuel injector per cylinder. Each fuel injector is an electrically controlled solenoid which, when triggered by a pulse from the engine control module (ECM), sprays a precisely metered amount of atomized fuel directly into the cylinder head intake port. The ECM supplies constant power to the injectors. The injector opening is controlled by the groundside of the circuit. Since fuel pressure at the injectors is (relatively) constant, the length of time (in milliseconds) of the grounding pulse from the ECM determines the amount of fuel injected. 

Over time fuel injectors can become restricted or fail electrically. If you have an injector giving you a problem, I suggest replacing them in sets. This way you maintain an even flow from all the injectors.

The injectors' shared fuel supply is a steel fuel rail. To remove an injector, you have to disconnect the electrical connectors to all the injectors. Then remove the fuel rail with all injectors attached to it. Individual injectors are then separated from the fuel rail, as needed.  If you remove the fuel injectors for any reason (for example, to replace the intake manifold) and you plan to reuse the fuel injectors, replace all the fuel injector sealing O-rings.

It is a good idea to relieve fuel system pressure before beginning. This will minimize the amount of fuel spilled. The best way to relieve fuel system pressure is to remove the fuel pump fuse and run the vehicle until the engine stalls. This is described below.

Keep in mind that when your car was serviced before, parts may have been replaced with different size fasteners used in the replacement. The sizes of the nuts and bolts we give may be different from what you have, so be prepared with different size sockets and wrenches. 

Protect your eyes, hands and body from fluids, dust and debris while working on your vehicle. If you are working with the electrical system, disconnect the battery before beginning. Always catch fluids in appropriate containers and properly dispose of any fluid waste. Recycle parts, packaging and fluids when possible. Do not work on your vehicle if you feel the task is beyond your ability. 

Vehicle models change and evolve, as they grow older, so the vehicle shown in our illustrations may vary slightly from yours. If something seems different, let us know and share your info to help other users. Do you have questions or want to add to the article? Leave a comment below. When leaving a comment, please leave your vehicle information.

It's a good idea to relieve the fuel system pressure before beginning.
Figure 1

It's a good idea to relieve the fuel system pressure before beginning. This will minimize the amount of fuel spilled. The best way to relieve the fuel system pressure is to remove the fuel pump fuse and run the vehicle until the engine stalls. Open glove compartment. Rotate the fuse panel retaining tabs 90 degrees and lower the fuse panel.

Remove fuse #54 (check that this fuse applies to you vehicle).
Figure 2

Remove fuse #54 (check that this fuse applies to you vehicle). Use the fuse application chart located below your fuses to identify the correct fuse number. Start and run the engine until it stalls. Once the engine stalls, attempt to start again, if it does not start, fuel system pressure has been relieved. Keep in mind - this does not remove all the fuel from the fuel lines, only the pressure. So you still need to be prepared to catch leaking fuel when the fuel lines are disconnected. Disconnect the negative (-) battery cable. See our Pelican Parts Technical Article on Battery Connection Notes. Next, remove the engine cover. See our Pelican Parts Technical Article on Removing Your Engine Covers.

Working at the top of the intake manifold, locate the oxygen sensor connectors (green arrows).
Figure 3

Working at the top of the intake manifold, locate the oxygen sensor connectors (green arrows). Slide both connectors out of mounting bracket and lay aside.

Working at center of intake manifold, disconnect the intake air temperature sensor electrical connector by releasing the tab and it pulling off (yellow arrow).
Figure 4

Working at center of intake manifold, disconnect the intake air temperature sensor electrical connector by releasing the tab and it pulling off (yellow arrow).

At the intake VANOS solenoid, disconnect the VANOS solenoid electrical connector by releasing the tab and it pulling off (yellow arrow).
Figure 5

At the intake VANOS solenoid, disconnect the VANOS solenoid electrical connector by releasing the tab and it pulling off (yellow arrow).

Then release the fuel injector harness strip from the fuel injectors and remove.
Figure 6

Then release the fuel injector harness strip from the fuel injectors and remove. I find the easiest way to do this is to use a flathead screwdriver and gently pry up at each fuel injector. This will release the spring clips that hold electrical harness to fuel injectors.

Work your way down the injectors while disconnecting the injector harness.
Figure 7

Work your way down the injectors while disconnecting the injector harness. Lay the fuel injector harness aside.

Working at rear of the intake manifold, disconnect the fuel line by pressing the release tab and pulling it apart.
Figure 8

Working at rear of the intake manifold, disconnect the fuel line by pressing the release tab and pulling it apart. Have a rag handy to catch any dripping fuel. You will have to reach behind the intake manifold, near the firewall (green arrow).You can see the line, but will have to do this part mostly by feel.

Reach behind the intake manifold and locate the fuel line (green arrow).
Figure 9

Reach behind the intake manifold and locate the fuel line (green arrow). Push fuel line toward fuel rail (purple arrow) then press the release tab (yellow arrow) and slide the fuel line off connection. Again, have a rag handy to catch any dripping fuel.

Next, remove the four 10mm fuel rail fasteners (green arrows).
Figure 10

Next, remove the four 10mm fuel rail fasteners (green arrows).

Now pull the fuel rail straight up and out of the intake manifold.
Figure 11

Now pull the fuel rail straight up and out of the intake manifold. Be careful not to damage a fuel injector when removing. If there are any o-rings stuck, lightly pry the fuel rail up using a flathead screwdriver. I like to pry between the edge of valve cover and fuel rail.

To remove the individual fuel injectors, remove the retaining clip (green arrow) by sliding off the fuel rail using a flathead screwdriver.
Figure 12

To remove the individual fuel injectors, remove the retaining clip (green arrow) by sliding off the fuel rail using a flathead screwdriver.

Next, pull the fuel injector straight out of the fuel rail.
Figure 13

Next, pull the fuel injector straight out of the fuel rail. When reinstalling the fuel injectors, replace the sealing o-rings and be sure that any retaining clips are properly seated. Press the fuel rail with its injectors into intake manifold until they are fully seated. Then install fuel rail fasteners and torque them down to specs. Reassemble the remaining items and check that there are no fuel leaks.

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Comments and Suggestions:
Jlglz Comments: 2003 bmw 745li. My car was bought with a p0024 code only and only bank 1 was turning on. I was researching online how to fix this possible issue with no luck. I checked ignition coil all ok, cam sensors ok, crank sensor ok, checked voltage at connectors all give 12 volts. Read on a thread to change sensors and coil from bank 1 to bank 2 and see if the symptom would follow, but now my car wont strat. I changed everything back to how it originally was, but still the car wont start. Not even bank1 and i am wondering what could have gone wrong. I bought new coils, cam sensors, and crank sensor too but car wont start. I checked coils and they seem not to have spark but connector has 12 volts. Any help would be appreciated thanks
December 7, 2016
Jlglz Comments: I have a 03 BMW 745li and was wondering if you knew what the independence my injectors are for this specific car ? I used my voltmeter to check the resistance but my voltmeter seems to be bad , it keeps giving me 0.0.0.8 as a reading . It gives the same reading for my ignition coils and my cam sensors .
November 22, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: I do not have that info. Your meter may be defective if getting the same reading everywhere. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
MSK Comments: Hmm... Reading through my error codes, I see there is a 19 0b as well. I bet my Peake reader cannot display the difference between a 6 and a b. I will replace the radiator temp outlet sensor and see if that clears things up :
October 30, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Ahh, thanks for the follow up. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
MSK Comments: I have a 2002 330xi that has the error code 19 06 Fuel Injector, Cyl #1. I replaced Cyl #1 injector and cleaned the others with same error code. I then swapped 1 & 5, 3 & 6 and 2 & 4 - still same error code on Cyl #1. Car runs fine, engine light won't stay off due to same error code. Any thoughts next to trouble shoot? Thank-you!
October 30, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Check the power and the trigger from the DME> If supply voltage is low, this code will set. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
Bruce Comments: Thanks Nick, found the problem. In a bonehead move , I unplugged the DME, long story, when putting it back together I bent pins. It's being repaired now.
Cheers
May 5, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Thanks for the follow up. We appreciate it.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
Bruce Comments: I have an 01 330ci with 66K miles on it. Number 1 injector is running constantly with the key on,
May 2, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Unplug the injector and check if the signal wire to the injector is shorted. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
Raf Comments: Checked compression. Looks good: #1 was 195 psi, #2 193, #3 190, #4 190, #5 195, #6 190. All cylinders are getting fuel except for #6 after the engine warms up. Verified that there is spark on all cylinders including #6. Waited until the engine was warm, running rough, and the fuel injector stopped working before checking spark on #6, but still got spark. Immediately after checking for spark, reinstalled the #6 plug and started engine, but it was no longer running rough, and the #6 fuel injector was pulsing again, so not sure I was able to duplicate the fault condition when I tested for spark even though the engine was warm. Any ideas on what else I could try or check? Thanks much Nick!
April 3, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Compression numbers look OK, which is great news.

I would assume the injector is OK, as they don't fail that often. I would look at the trigger on the coil. Is it always firing, is there a current spike when the misfire appears?- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
Raf Comments: Thanks for the reply. Yes, the check engine light is on. I had it scanned with the following results: P1353, Misfire, cylinder 6 with fuel cut-off. I swapped the #6 coil with the #1 coil, but the #6 cylinder continued to misfire. I then swapped the #6 spark plug with the #1 spark plug, and the #6 cylinder continued to misfire. In both cases it only happens after the engine is warmed up. The #1 cylinder continued to fire even after I swapped both the coil and plug. No other cylinders misfire. This is what then lead me to swap and test the injectors as I mentioned in my first message. I also checked resistance on all injectors. Lowest reading was 11.7 ohms. Highest reading was 12.0 ohms. As you mentioned, it does appear that injector #6 is being commanded off, since I get the same result after swapping the #6 and #1 injectors. I haven't done a compression test yet. Will do that next. Thanks again!
April 1, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Thanks for the follow up. Let me know about compression. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
Raf Comments: I have a 2003 330 CI. The fuel injector for cylinder #6 stops working when the engine warms up. Used a stethoscope to verify that the injector for cylinder #6 is not pulsing. Tested all 6 injectors. All read between 11.8 and 12.0 ohms. Swapped the #6 fuel injector with the one for cylinder #1. No change in results after the engine warms up. Is it possible that the injector harness is bad? How can I test the voltage/signal for injector #6 coming from the harness connector? Thanks much!
April 1, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: The injector may be commanded off if a misfire is present. Is the check engine light on? Sounds like an engine misfire. I would check spark, fuel and compression on all cylinders.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
confuseme Comments: I did check the spark,fuel injector pulse and pressure fuel what I did not check are the volume and quality.
February 28, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Measure the volume of fuel delivered, then compare it to the spec for your vehicle. Then keep a sample in a suitable container and monitor it for separation and debris. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
confuseme Comments: What do you mean by checking the bmw "volume" and "quality" when your engine doesn't start and checking the basics.
February 28, 2016
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Measure the volume of fuel delivered, then compare it to the spec for your vehicle. Then keep a sample in a suitable container and monitor it for separation and debris. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
BmwE46jimmu Comments: I recently did a engine swap on my 2000 328i and upon finally getting it done I noticed I had no fuel spraying out of my injectors. I checked the fuel injector harness and I have power and ground but still no action. Could I have a blown relay and if so which one is it? I have to check fuse 54 tomorrow . And I noticed my harness doesn't have a ground wire coming out from the harness. Only the starter wires and a ground coming off my engine which looks like it would reach my manifold. But the manifold is plastic no? So can't be the ground needed . I'm boggled and spent the better part of the afternoon working on it again and again. Sorry for double message but the email added a capital O first time
September 24, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Are there any fault codes stored? Does the vehicle have fuel pressure? - Nick at Pelican Parts  
BmwE46jimmu Comments: I recently did a engine swap on my 2000 328i and upon finally getting it done I noticed I had no fuel spraying out of my injectors. I checked the fuel injector harness and I have power and ground but still no action. Could I have a blown relay and if so which one is it? I have to check fuse 54 tomorrow . And I noticed my harness doesn't have a ground wire coming out from the harness. Only the starter wires and a ground coming off my engine which looks like it would reach my manifold. But the manifold is plastic no? So can't be the ground needed . I'm boggled and spent the better part of the afternoon working on it again and again.
September 24, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Are there any fault codes stored? Does the vehicle have fuel pressure? - Nick at Pelican Parts  
Luarndez Comments: Hi, my fuel injector rail also has 2 flexible hoses,1 blue and 1 gray,not equal on lenght, not sure which one goes where,also the injector rails has 2 hose mounting places,long and short. Help me out. BMW 328i E46 model 2000. Thanks in advance.
September 23, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: One is return and supply. They are different inside diameters. Match them up to the fuel rail. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
John Comments: How many o rings per injector? One at top one at bottom??
01 325i
September 23, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: One top, one bottom. Two per injector. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
BMWChris Comments: I'm working on a 2000 bmw 328i . And they both appear to be similar in size or same size.
September 6, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: SHould be different. Measure the hose ID. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
BMWChris Comments: I noticed on my fuel rail I have two fuel line plugins...one grey and one blue. Hoses are detached and can't remember which goes where. Help!
August 29, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: What vehicle are you working on? Are the hose sizes different? Usually they vary depending on feed or return. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
Meticulous Comments: Fuel rail will not seat back down. Replaced o rings. Can bolt down and car runs fine without leaks but due to rail being not fully seated and thus being at an angle I cannot mount the IM cover. Selling the car and this is required for aesthetic purposes. HELP!
August 13, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Something is either misaligned or stuck in the injector port. Confirm there are no O-rings stuck in the port blocking the injector from dropping down. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
EUAutoHaus Comments: Javygnox - I have had the same problems in the past with E46 chassis. I've owned 4 E46s, the M54 3.0 E60 and an E85 Z4 M54 3.0...all have had issues with this part at some point in the lives...usually around 100K mi. Since you did all of that did you consider the DISA intake manifold runner it may have broken flap, the pin could be lose or the electric portion may be bad. Stop shooting in the dark. Get some BMW Software tools to help diagnose. If you don't have, start with the basics...Air, Fuel, Spark. Good luck.
August 9, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Thanks for the input on this one. We appreciate the help.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
dan Comments: I have an 03'325 xi that i have been getting dtc'c p1347,p1353 that usually trips when i turn the car off after driving it and restarting it,or while the engine is warm,idling at stop lights in gear.I have swapped coils,new plugs, etc... to no avail,do you think it could be dirty/bad injectors,and would i just look for deposits on them to tell if they are bad? thanks dan
August 9, 2015
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: The fault codes you have mean the misfire was bad enough to require shutting off the injector. I would check spark, fuel and compression on all cylinders. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
RC11 Comments: IAT on a 2005 M54b30 is part of the Mass Airflow sensor which is attached to the AIr Box
September 15, 2014
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Correct, there is also an ambient air temp sensor. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
TheDog Comments: Do you sell the o-rings for 2004 bmw 330i fuel injectors? What are your part numbers.
July 23, 2014
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: We do sell them. I am not sure of the part numbers. Give our parts specialists a call at 1-888-280-7799. They can help you find the right O-rings.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 
TheDog Comments: Looking to change out o-rings in my 2004 bmw 330i. Is this procedure the same? Any lube on the o-rings? Also do you sell the o-rings?
July 18, 2014
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: Yes, it is similar. This procedure will get you done. I like to use dish soap as a lube on the O-rings. - Nick at Pelican Parts  
javygonx Comments: HELP! With Air Intake Sensor!... on E46 2005 BMW. My car has the "Cold Start" Issue. Once it starts the car works excellent all day. Eve if I turn OFF the car and turn it on back after 10-15 minutes is starts fine. But after a couple of hours the "Cold Start" Symptom came back.

Thins I already replaced Vanos Seals, Fuel Pump, Fuel Filter, Fuel Injectors O-Rings, PCV Valve, Mass Flow Meter, Flow Meter Boots and problem persists. I keep reading and reading and found that the IAT Sensor could be the issue.

So, I ordered the IAT, and gues what? When I replaced the sensor I found that it is like a "dummy sensor" and there is no connection to plug the new sensor! So; why my car does not have such cable? Does my car does not have IAT? As far as I know and I checked on realoem.com my car is supposed to have IAT sensor. It is located somewhere else?

Please help here. Thanks
July 8, 2014
  Followup from the Pelican Staff: The wiring may be moved away from the sensor, I would search the area for it.

As far as your issue, I would do some testing before replacing anything else. When your engine doesn’t start you’ll want to check the basics. Check spark, fuel injector pulse and pressure fuel, volume and quality. Are there any fault codes? Once you figure out what is missing, it will be easier to diagnose.
- Nick at Pelican Parts
 

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