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Home > Tech Info Center > The 911 Series > 911 FAQ

911 FAQ Version 2.2
7/26/95
Wade Guthrie
wade@realm.net


Copyright 1995, Wade Guthrie. Permission is granted to copy
and redistribute this document so long as it is unmodified
and the copyright remains in-tact.


Note: I use a lot of names that are trademarks in this FAQ. At no time
should the use of a trademarked name be construed as contesting the
trademark. Those trademarks belong to their respective trademark
holders.


Q0.  What does this FAQ cover?

A.  Q1.  What's a 911?
    Q2.  Which 911 Should I Get?
    Q3.  What are the classic problems / areas to check on 911s?
    Q4.  So, what's wrong with the 2.7 liter 911s?
    Q5.  What are the differences between the various 911s?
    Q6.  Okay, so how do I tell the difference between them?
    Q7.  But, Porsches are known for performance; how do the models 
         differ?
    Q8.  I want to buy a 911.  For what should I look?
    Q9.  What should the VIN or engine number look like for my car?
    Q10. Does anyone have a checklist for potential 911 buyers?

Q1. What's a 911?

A.  Yikes.  Okay, in 1963 Porsche announced the 901, a car based on 
    the venerable 356 model.  The car was renamed 911 because 
    Peugeot had a copyright on all 3-digit car model numbers with a zero 
    in the middle.  The 911 has gone on to become, arguably, the most 
    popular car ever produced by Porsche.  
    
    The 911 engine is an air cooled (or oil cooled) six cylinder opposed 
    design.  The cylinders bolt onto the crankcase such that displacement
    increases are often achieved by replacing the pistons and cylendars.
    
    The body of the car was designed by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche (Ferry's 
    son) while the engine was designed by Ferdinand Piech (Dr. Porsche's 
    nephew).

Q2. Which 911 Should I Get?

A.  The standard answer is "get the newest 911 you can afford".
    Unfortunately, it's more complicated than that.  I had occasion 
    to meet Joe Rusz, Senior Editor at Road & Track (gratuitous name 
    dropping, here); his answer to this question was simply "if you 
    can afford it, get one with Motronic Fuel Injection" (those'd be 
    the ones built in 84 and after).

    You really have to decide for yourself what you want.  Many feel 
    that one exception to the 'newest you can afford' rule is the 
    middle year cars (1973 through 1977) due to their short engine 
    life span (circa 50K miles).  Others (like myself) prefer the 
    early mechanically injected cars (light and sparcely appointed 
    with quick, torquey engines) over the newer 911SC (with their air 
    conditioning, electric windows, and bullet-proof engine).

    Hopefully, the information in this document will help you decide.

Q3. What are the classic problems/areas to check on 911s?

A.  The 911 is a really good car but there are a few problem areas 
    that have, at various times, plagued this particular vehicle.  Here 
    is a list of some of the most notorious problems.

A1. RUST -- Rust can destroy a 911's unit-body and this can be really
    expensive (impossible?) to fix.  Watch closely for rust, particularly 
    with the pre-galvanized bodies (pre-1976?).  Check the seams around 
    and edges of the doors, trunk, and hood.  Check the jack points and
    the torsion bar tubes.

A2. CHAIN TENSIONERS -- The timing chain is held taught by chain tensioners.
    The early (pre-1984) timing chain tensioners tended to wear out and 
    suddenly collapse causing your pistons to come in violent contact with 
    your valves.  This gets expensive.  The 1984 and later cars used oil-
    fed tensioners which solved the problem.  

    Many early 911 owners have had their older chain tensioners replaced 
    with Carrera tensioners.  This modification costs around $300-$400 
    plus labor.  Adding carrera tensioners is extremely expensive on 
    pre-1967 engines.
    
    Some have modified their tensioners by adding mechanical tensioner 
    guards.  These devices keep the tensioners from collapsing 
    completely when they collapse.

A3. EXPLODING CLUTCH -- The 911SC (1978-1983) used a rubber-centered 
    clutch which would eventually fail and send rubber pieces sailing 
    throughout that part of the transmission.  These clutches should be 
    replaced by a spring-centered one.

A4. EXPLODING AIRBOX -- The 2.7 and 3.0 liter 911 cars use a $200 airbox 
    that can, if the car backfires while starting, explode.  For around 
    $15, you can get a pop-off valve that is supposed to fix this 
    problem.

Q4. So, what's all these problems I keep hearing about the 2.7 liter 
    911s?

A.  It's a tragic story.  Porsche increased the displacement of the 
    2.4 without providing enough cooling and, to add insult to injury, 
    the US models had thermal reactors (except for 1974) that got 
    REALLY hot.  The result is, among other things, head studs that 
    pulled out of the crank case (due to thermal expansion of the 
    cylinders) and destroyed valve trains.  All of this resulted in an 
    average engine life of about 50,000 miles (your mileage may vary -- 
    HA! I was *waiting* to use that line).

    So the natural follow-on question (so natural, in fact, that I'm not
    breaking it out into its own question) is "can anything be done to 
    mitigate the design flaws of the 2.7?"  The answer is:

	- Have the case helicoiled or timeserted.  These threaded 
	  inserts are installed in the crank case to hold the 
	  cylinder studs tightly and keep them from pulling.

	- Use Dilivar or Raceware studs.  These studs won't pull 
	  out because they expand with temperature at the same 
	  rate as the cylendars.

  	- Replace the 5-blade fan with an 11-blade fan.

	- Add an extra oil cooler.

Q5. What are the differences between the various 911s?

A.  There's *lots* of differences:

    First, there are numerous of body styles:

	Coupe		4 seats (well, 2 and a couple postage 
			stamps) and a hard roof.  You know. . .
			a COUPE

	Targa		Like a coupe, but with a roll bar and a 
			removable top.  The earlier targas had 
			soft rear windows, but the later ones 
			had glass.

	Cabriolet	A full-on convertible.

	Speedster	A version of convertible, but with a
			short windshield and a fiberglass tonneau
			(the 356 speedster was different, but we're
			talking about 911s here).

    There are several trim and tune options:

	T, E, S		The early years (the latest any of these
			were produced was 1977) cars in touring, 
			injected and super (also fuel injected)
			states of tune.
			
	Carrera		For the earlier cars, this was the quickest
			standard customer car.  After 1983, the Carrera
			was the standard customer car.
			
	SC		This was the standard car (there was also the
			turbo for some of theses years) between 1978 
			and 1983.

	H, N		Rare models: Homologation (20 made in 1973) and 
			a Euro model in 1976.

	L		The one-year replacement for the 911S in the US.

	R, RS, RSR	911 in race trim.  These cars are always rare
			and expensive.

	Turbo		This one is, well, turbo charged.


    And, finally, there are the various changes over the different model
    years.  Major Eras Include (the names are, partly, my own):

	- 1964-1968 short wheel base (SWB, 2211 mm to be exact).  In 
	  contrast, the long wheel base (LWB) is 2268 mm long.

	- 1968-1973 early power.  These 2.0, 2.2, and 2.4 liter 911s
	  (my personal favorites) saw either mechanical fuel injection 
	  or carburetors (actually, in 73.5, the 911 T was 
	  electronically fuel injected).

	- 1974-1977 middle-year 911s.  These cars had the 2.7 liter 
	  engines that had a notoriously short life span.  This is
	  the beginning of the crash bumpers (with the accordion
	  sections at the edges) and K-Jetronic fuel injection.

	- 1978-1983 911SC.  These 3.0 liter SCs are powerful, 
	  luxurious, and nearly bullet-proof.

	- 1984-1989 Motronic Carreras.  Like the 911SC, but with a
	  3.2 liter engine and Motronic fuel injection.

	- 1989-1994 964 (original 911 Carrera 2/4).  These cars have
	  the one-piece, all body color bumpers and the engine cover
	  that raises at 50 MPH to form a wing.

	- 1994-today 993 (today's 911)

    Note: Years given are model year.  The model years start in August
    or September of the previous year (example 1972 model year starts
    in September of 1971).  Much of the research for this document has
    been clouded by research materials not specifying whether they
    discussed calendar year or model year.

    More specific differences are given in table 1, below.

Q6. Okay, so how do I tell the difference between them?

A.  Well, you asked for it. . .

-- Short Wheel Base 1964-1968 -------------------------------

    1968 and earlier cars have a shorter wheelbase than the 911s built 
    in 1969 and after (recognition hint: the torsion bar tubes are right 
    next to the SWB cars' rear wheel well -- there's a gap in the LWB 
    cars).  Other accoutrements of the SWB cars are:

  	- glass lens covered headlights,
    	- exterior door handles that opened via an exposed push-button 
	  (rather than the flying-buttress protection or trigger of 
	  later years), 
  	- no side marker reflectors, 
    	- Hella 128 fog lights mounted through the bottom half of the 
	  front bumper, 
	- a vertical structural strip running under the rear engine 
	  grille,  
    	- sunroof models during these years had a drain slot above the 
	  rain gutter above the back side windows,

    And, in the interior:
	- chrome instrument bezels with green lettering, 
	- ceiling-mounted rear-view mirror (1968 was as well, but
	  it was break-away type)
	- a one piece under-dash knee guard,
    	- pleated door pockets, and
    	- push-buttons to open the doors from the inside.

    Until 1971, non-S models had silver painted slotted steel wheels; 
    S models had Fuchs alloy wheels.

    911s before the 1967 model year had the '911' designation 
    diagonally across the lower right corner of the engine cover and 
    the PORSCHE script in one piece (well, actually it was two pieces, 
    but it looked like one) on the bottom.  

--
1964 2.0 liter

  There were four 901 prototypes produced (serial numbers 13326, 13327,
  13328, and 13330).  Porsche went on to build 125 first year (1964) 901 
  cars.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  The 1964 cars have no rocker-panel trim and and no model designation on 
  the engine lid or on the dash.  Supporting clues are that 1966 and earlier 
  911s have wooden dash trim and open A-frame window cranks.

OPTIONS:

--
1965 2.0 liter

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  These cars look nearly identical to the 1966 cars.  The things that 
  separate these cars from the 1966s is in the interior.  The 1965 cars have 
  no wrap-around knee guard, aluminum backing on the wood dash trim, or 
  rubber shift boot (I think they were leather).

  Both years are similar in that they have the rocker panel trim (this is
  not found on the 1964 cars), wooden dash trim, and open A-frame window 
  cranks.

OPTIONS:
  A four speed transmission became standard mid-model year.
  Sunroof, tinted windshield, enamel porsche crest on wheels, chrome 
  plated steel wheels, gasoline heater (LHD models only), ambient 
  temperature gauge, driver's side vanity mirror on sun visor, recaro 
  or ferrari seats (actually, both are made by recaro), leather seats
  headrests

--
1966 2.0 liter

  Weber carbs replace Solex mid-model year.  S model introduced mid-
  model year.  Fuchs wheels introduced.  Targa (with soft rear window) 
  introduced.  911 introduced in US.  

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  These cars look nearly identical to the 1965 cars.  The things that 
  separate these cars from the 1966s is in the interior (see the 1965
  description).  Of course, if the car is an 'S' model, it has to be
  a 1966 or later.

  US models have all chrome vertical bumper guards (standard equipment) -- 
  911S bumper guards are all rubber.  

OPTIONS:
  sunroof, tinted windshield, enamel porsche crest on wheels, chrome 
  plated steel wheels, gasoline heater (standard on S-models) (LHD models 
  only), ambient temperature gauge, driver's side vanity mirror on sun 
  visor, recaro or ferrari seats (actually, both are made by recaro)
  leather seats, headrests

--
1967 2.0 liter

  Only 4 prototypes and 19 'production' 911Rs were made.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  The window cranks on 1967 cars are of the covered A-frame type but had 
  a hard plastic knob.

  US Models have chrome vertical bumper guards with a rubber strip 
  (standard) -- 911S bumper guards are all rubber.  The bases for the 
  switches on the dash go from black to chrome and the dash is matte black 
  (S model had basket weave vinyl).  

OPTIONS:
  Rear window wiper optional from this model year on (on Targas, too?),
  tinted windshield, rear-window defroster (vertical wires), sunroof,
  sportomatic (introduced in 1967), enamel porsche crest on steel wheels,
  chrome plated steel wheels, Fuchs alloys on non-S models, 100 liter fuel 
  tank, gasoline heater (standard on S-models) (LHD models only), ambient 
  temperature gauge, leather covered steering wheel (standard on S-models),
  driver's side vanity mirror on sun visor, leather seats, headrests, recaro 
  sport seats (available in leather, vinyl, vinyl with with corduroy, or 
  vinyl with hound's tooth inserts).

-- Early Power 1968-1973 -----------------------------------

    Side marker reflectors appear in 1968 (tacked-on side reflector) -- 
    in 1969 and later, the reflectors are incorporated into the turn 
    indicators.  1968 and later 911s have the model designation mounted 
    horizontally centered on the engine cover (the hood?).  The covered 
    headlight is replaced with a rim bezel over a sealed beam headlight 
    (US) or a lens covering bulbs (non-US).  Inside, the window cranks 
    are one-piece with a soft vinyl knob.  The door pockets under the
    arm rests are vinyl-covered hard cardboard.

    1969 is the first year of long wheelbase 911s; these came with 
    flared fender arches; also, the targas come with glass rear windows.

    The 911s between 1969 and 1973 used a 2 battery system.  

    From 1970 on, the doors opened via trigger-type door handles.  The 
    under-dash knee guard is a two-piece (with room for the ash tray in
    between) unit during this time period.

    1969 and later, the rear-view mirror is mounted to the windshield.

--
1968 (A Model) 2.0 Liter

  A very few targas had glass rear windows at the end of the model year.  

RECOGNITION TIPS:
  Matte black wiper arms.  US Models have chrome vertical bumper guards with 
  a rubber strip (standard) -- 911S bumper guards are all rubber.  S Models 
  have chrome vertical bumper guards with a rubber strip.  Knobs on the dash
  are now rubber covered.

  1968 US models only, 911s had tacked-on rectangular side reflectors in 
  front and back.  Two-piece dash pad (1968 only).  Matte black dash (S 
  and L models had basket weave or elephant hide vinyl).  Rear-view mirror
  is break-away and ceiling-mounted.

OPTIONS:
  sunroof, Sportomatic transmission (1968-1971), tinted windshield, rear-
  window defroster (vertical wires), a chrome bar (optionally with leather 
  rubber covering), connecting the top of the rear vertical bumper guards 
  (where bumper guards exist), a 3-piece stainless steel muffler skirt 
  (hanging below the rear of the car), enamel porsche crest on steel wheels,
  chrome plated steel wheels, Fuchs alloys on non-S models, 100 liter fuel 
  tank, gasoline heater (LHD models only), ambient temperature gauge, 
  leather covered steering wheel (standard on S-models), leather seats,
  headrests, recaro sport seats (available in leather, vinyl, vinyl with
  corduroy, or vinyl with hound's tooth inserts) are available on non-US 
  cars.

--
1969 (B Model) 2.0 Liter

  All new forced air ventillation system.  Heated rear window standard.  
  Targa had glass rear window.  911T came in an normal and 'Lux' 
  configurations.  911T has all chrome bumper guards (rubber strip is an 
  option); 911E and S have all rubber bumper guards.  After 1968, side 
  marker reflectors were incorporated into the turn-signal indicator.  

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  First year of long wheelbase 911s; these came with flared fender arches.
  Dash was basket weave vinyl (1969-1971).  If it's a LWB car with push-
  button outside door handles, it's a 1969.

OPTIONS:
  Hydropneumatic struts on S model, Hella 169 fog lights (not available in 
  US), sunroof, tinted windshield, Sportomatic transmission (1968-1971),
  aluminum wheel arch mouldings (E and S models), sportomatic, 5 speed (T 
  and E models), rear-window defroster (horizontal wires), a chrome bar 
  (optionally with leather rubber covering), connecting the top of the rear 
  vertical bumper guards (where bumper guards exist), a 3-piece stainless 
  steel muffler skirt (hanging below the rear of the car), 10-spoke cast 
  magnesium wheel (on T model only), chrome plated steel wheels, 100 liter 
  gas tank (non-US models only), gasoline heater (LHD models only), electric 
  antenna, leather seats, headrests, vinyl and leather door coverings,
  vinyl or leather (or cloth?) sport seats, electric windows

--
1970 (C Model) 2.2 Liter

  Underfloor areas galvanized with PVC undercoat.  911T has all chrome 
  bumper guards (rubber strip is an option); 911E and S have all rubber 
  bumper guards.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  First year of trigger-type door handles.  '2.2' sticker in the back window.
  Dash was basket weave vinyl (1969-1971).  1967-1970 glove boxes used a key
  lock which was mounted over the glove box, but offset toward the center
  of the car.

OPTIONS:
  Hella 169 fog lights (not available in US), Limited slip differential 
  optional, sunroof, Sportomatic transmission (1968-1971), tinted windshield,
  aluminum wheel arch mouldings (E and S models), rear-window defroster 
  (horizontal wires), a chrome bar (optionally with leather rubber covering)
  connecting the top of the rear vertical bumper guards (where bumper guards 
  exist), a 3-piece stainless steel muffler skirt (hanging below the rear of 
  the car), 10-spoke cast magnesium wheel (on T model only), chrome plated 
  steel wheels, 100 liter gas tank (non-US models only), gasoline heater 
  (LHD models only), Bosch hydro-dynamic struts (on T and S models only),
  electric antenna, leather seats, headrests, vinyl and leather door 
  coverings, vinyl or leather (or cloth?) sport seats, electric windows


--
1971 2.2 liter

  911T has all chrome bumper guards (rubber strip is an option); 911E and S 
  have all rubber bumper guards.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Dash was basket weave vinyl (1969-1971).  In 1971, the glove box lock was
  mounted in a twist knob that appeared centered over the glove box.

OPTIONS:
  Hella 169 fog lights (not available in US), tinted windshield, Sportomatic 
  transmission (1968-1971), heated windshield (this year only), sunroof,
  aluminum wheel arch mouldings (E and S models), rear-window defroster 
  (horizontal wires), a 3-piece stainless steel muffler skirt (hanging 
  below the rear of the car), 10-spoke cast magnesium wheel (on T model 
  only), chrome plated steel wheels, gasoline heater (LHD models only),
  electric antenna, leather seats, headrests, vinyl and leather door 
  coverings, vinyl or leather (or cloth?) sport seats (standard on S model),
  electric windows.

--
1972 2.4 liter

  Stroked to get 2.4 liters; compression lowered to run on regular gas.  
  Dry oil sump made of stainless steel.  The 901 transmission was replaced, 
  starting in 1972, with the stronger 915 transmission.  One result of 
  this is that these cars now use the conventional H shift pattern (drat!).  
  Silver painted slotted steel wheels standard on T model.  Seat belts 
  retract in US.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Matte black engine grille, PORSCHE letters, seat recliner bars, and (on 
  targa models) targa script.  1972-only had oil filler flap below right-side 
  C-pillar.  '2.4' badge on engine grille.  Rectangular side mirrors.  Dash 
  was leather grain vinyl (1972-1973) with no model designation.

OPTIONS:
  Front spoiler optional on T model, Sportomatic on E and T models, 5 speed 
  on all cars in US and on T models in UK, Larger fuel tank (with space 
  saver spare), 6Jx15 alloys, Hella 169 fog lights (not available in US or 
  on E or S), tinted windshield, aluminum wheel arch mouldings (all models),
  rear-window defroster (horizontal wires), sunroof, a 3-piece stainless 
  steel muffler skirt (hanging below the rear of the car), 10-spoke cast 
  magnesium wheel (on T model only), gasoline heater (LHD models only), 
  electric antenna, leather seats, headrests, vinyl or leather door coverings,
  vinyl or leather (or cloth?) sport seats, electric windows


--
1973

  20 H (for Homologation) models were built.  Carrera RS (1580 made) 
  available in Sport and Touring versions.  

  Better oil cooler, stronger main bearings.  Large fuel tank standard 
  (electric compressor provided for the little-bitty tire that fits around 
  the fuel tank).  Front air dam standard on all models.  911 T and E 
  available in standard and Lux versions.  Targa available mid-year in UK.  
  Silver painted slotted steel wheels standard on T model.  E model used 
  cookie-cutter wheels as standard.  Seat belts retract in US.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Matte black engine grille, PORSCHE letters, and (on targa models) targa 
  script; UK models had black horn grilles.  Bumper guards on US models are 
  made entirely of rubber.  Rectangular side mirrors.  Carrera had 'ducktail' 
  rear wing.  Dash was leather grain vinyl (1972-1973) with no model 
  designation.

OPTIONS:
  Fuchs alloys on T model, Hella 169 fog lights (not available in US or on 
  E or S), sunroof, tinted windshield, aluminum wheel arch mouldings (all 
  models except Carrera), rear-window defroster (horizontal wires), a 
  3-piece stainless steel muffler skirt (hanging below the rear of the car),
  gasoline heater (LHD models only), leather seats, headrests


-- Middle Years 1974-1977 -----------------------------------

    Shock absorber bumpers, seats have fixed headrest.  Along with the 
    fat bumpers, the trunk (front of the car) goes from curved-over to 
    flat where it hits the bumper.  The main-line cars all have 2.7 
    liter displacements with CIS fuel injection.

--
1974 (G Model) 2.7 liter

  Carrera available only in Coupe and Targa versions (no Sport, Touring, 
  or Racing versions).

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Carrera 2.7 had 'ducktail' rear spoiler (but shock absorber bumpers).  
  The bumper guards on US-model 1974 cars were only about 3.5 inches wide.  
  Newer cars have 7 inch wide bumper guards.  Note that the 1974 cars do 
  *NOT* have thermal reactors (non-US cars never had them); these things 
  generate a lot of heat and, therefore, heat-related problems.

OPTIONS:
  5-speed transmission (US -- this was standard in UK) or 4-speed 
  Sportomatic

--
1975 2.7 liter

  There was a silver anniversary edition of the 911 with silver cloth 
  in seats and doors and black leather trim.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Black targa roll bar. 

OPTIONS:

--
1976 2.7 liter

  Carrera comes in regular and sport trim.  Entire body covered in zinc for 
  rust protection.  5-bladed engine fan (rather than 11).  Five speed 
  transmission standard in US and UK.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  External mirror painted body color.  Headlight washer is of the stick-up
  variety between 1976 and 1979.

OPTIONS:
  sportomatic transmission, Koni adjustable or Bilstein gas/oil shocks (S 
  Model), external oil cooler, forged alloy wheels, sport seats, electric 
  sunroof, electric windows, air conditioning

--
1977

  Cars fitted with extra air pump, twin thermal reactors and exhaust
  recirculation.  Improved gear box.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Headlight washer is of the stick-up variety between 1976 and 1979.

OPTIONS:
  sportomatic transmission, 5-speed transmission, center console


-- 911SC and Later 1978 on ----------------------------------

    The fenders were flaired more dramatically from 1978-on.  The rear 
    badge of the 1978-1983 cars had, of course, the '911SC' designation.  
    Between 1984 and 1988, the badge on the engine lid indicated the
    then-current model name, "Carrera".  From 1980-on, the headlight
    washers were mounted flush with the front bumper.  The cabriolet 
    body type was offered for the first time in 1983.
    
--
1978

  5-speed standard.  SC comes in standard and sport configurations.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Headlight washer is of the stick-up variety between 1976 and 1979.

OPTIONS:
  air conditioning, power windows, last year of the Sportomatic transmission

--
1979

  SC horsepower increased mid-model year to 188.  

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  SC now has black window frames, electric windows.  Headlight washer 
  is of the stick-up variety between 1976 and 1979.

OPTIONS:
  air conditioning

--
1980

  SC now has air conditioning and electric windows standard.  The 911SC
  Weissach edition was available in 1980.  Flush-mount headlight washers
  start in 1980.

RECOGNITION TIPS:
OPTIONS:

--
1981

  SC was given a higher compression ratio for 1981.  The SC still comes in 
  standard and sports configurations.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Indicator side marking lights.

OPTIONS:
  sports seats, berber cloth upholstery, leather upholstery

--
1982

RECOGNITION TIPS:
OPTIONS:

--
1983

  The Cabriolet was offered for the first time in 1983.  This is the last
  year of the 911SC.

RECOGNITION TIPS:
OPTIONS:

--
1984

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  The easiest key is that the post 1983 cars had the name 'Carrera' on the
  engine lid rather than '911 SC'.  These cars used the 'old' non-electric
  seats.  Fog lamps in front spoiler.

OPTIONS:
  air conditioning

--
1985

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  First year of the electric driver-side seat.

OPTIONS:
  Electric passenger-side seat.

--
1986

  More effective air flow due to redesign of the ventilation system.

RECOGNITION TIPS:
OPTIONS:

--
1987

  New transmission with a hydraulic clutch is standard.

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  The black "PORSCHE" script on the rear reflector is dropped this year 
  in favor of clear script.  Halogen headlights (rather than sealed beam)
  are now fitted on US cars.

OPTIONS:

--
1988

  959 available in sport and comfort trim.
  911 Speedster  .      .    217n    195n .   .

RECOGNITION TIPS:
OPTIONS:
  limited-slip differential (possibly turbo only), 16 inch wheels (possibly 
  carrera only), alarm system (possibly carrera only), 7" wide front tires 
  (carrera only), 8" wide rear tires (carrera only)

--
1989

RECOGNITION TIPS:

  Aside from the "Carrera 4" script on the back of the engine lid (the
  Carrera 2 came by in 1990), this is the first year of the new smooth,
  body- colored bumpers.  This is also the first year for standard 
  dual airbags and ABS.

OPTIONS:

--
1990

RECOGNITION TIPS:
OPTIONS:
  electrically adjustable seats

--
1991-1993

RECOGNITION TIPS:
OPTIONS:

--
1994 993 (first year for ROW)

RECOGNITION TIPS:

    This is the first year of the 993.  This car stands-out with sloped
    headlights, a larger engine cover/movable rear wing, and a handle-
    like fixed wing (with integrated third brake light) over the back 
    engine cover.

OPTIONS:
  Available in Speedster configuration.

--
1995 993 (first year USA)

RECOGNITION TIPS:

OPTIONS:
  Tiptronic
Q7. But, Porsches are known for performance; how do the models differ in
    performance?

A.  Check this out.

    ** Note: 0-60 times are subject to the talents (and the desire not 
       to damage the car) of the driver.  For this reason, the times
       will vary from source to source.  This table has used several
       different sources (some of which do not match).  Don't take the
       0-60 times too seriously.


Table 1.  911 Models by Year and Type
--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------
  |              |induc-|0 to| Horse |    |top|    |              |
Yr| Model/Disp   |tion  | 60 | power |trq |spd| wt |    price     |
--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------
64 911  2.0       Solex  8.3  130     120  130 2380
65 911  2.0       Solex  8.3  130     128  130 2380  2.5  7.9 16.0

66 911  2.0       carb   8.3  130     128  130 2207  2.5  7.9 16.0
66 911S 2.0       carb   8.0  160     132  140 2207  4.0 10.2 18.5

67 911  2.0       Weber  8.3  130     128  130 .     2.5  7.9 16
67 911S 2.0       Weber  8.0  160     132  140 2314  4.0 10.2 18.5
67 911R 2.0       Weber  .    210     .    .   1810

68 911  2.0       .      8.3  130     128  130 2207  3.7  6.2 10.0
68 911T 2.0       Weber  .    110     113  124 2185  4.5  6.4  8.1
68 911L 2.0       .      10.6 130     128  131 2314  5.3  8.8 12.5
68 911E 2.0       MFI    8.4  130     128  131 2185
68 911S 2.0 (q)   MFI    8.0  160     131  140 2132  4.0 10.2 18.5

69 911T 2.0       Weber  10.2 110     116  125 2250  3.5  7.8 16.0
69 911E 2.0       MFI    8.4  140     129  134 .     6.5 10.2 15.5
69 911S 2.0       MFI    8.0  170     134  170 2250  4.7  7.6 11.0

70 911T 2.2       carb   9.5x 125     130  127 2250  3.5  7.9 16.0
70 911E 2.2       MFI    7.6  155     141  137 .     6.0  9.0 15.0
70 911S 2.2       MFI    7.0x 180     147  138 2250  4.0 10.4 19.5

71 911T 2.2       (r)    9.5x 125     130  127 .     3.5  7.9 16.0
71 911E 2.2       MFI    7.6  155     141  137 .     6.0  9.0 15.0
71 911S 2.2       MFI    7.0x 180     147  138 .     4.0 10.4 19.5
71 911 racing     MFI    .    270     .    .   .

72 911T    2.4    (a)    9.5  130u    145u 127 .     3.0  9.1 24.5
72 911E    2.4    MFI    7.9x 165     152  138 .     4.0  9.8 22.0
72 911S    2.4    MFI    6.6x 190     159  144 .     6.2 17.6 28.5
72 911RSR  2.8    MFI    .    275-308 .    .   .

73 911T    2.4    (b)    9.5  130u    148  127 2250  3.0  9.1 24.5
73 911E    2.4    MFI    7.9x 165     152  138 2303  4.0  9.8 22.0
73 911S    2.4    MFI    6.6x 190     159  144 2303  6.2 17.6 28.5
73 911H           .      .    .       .    .   2112
73 Carrera 2.7 RS MFI    5.8x 210     187  143 2145 59.0 71.1 88.5
73 RSR     2.8    MFI    .    308     .    .   2145
73 RSR     3.0    MFI    .    315-330 .    .   .

--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------
  |              |induc-|0 to| Horse |    |top|    |              |
Yr| Model/Disp   |tion  | 60 | power |trq |spd| wt |    price     |
--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------

74 911       2.7  K-Jet  7.9  150     175  130 2303  4.8 11.1 19.9
74 911S      2.7  K-Jet  6.1  175     175  140 2303  4.4 10.7 20.0
74 Carrera   2.7  (c)    8.5  175c    175c 131 2303 10.0 17.7 49.5
74 RS        3.0  .      .    230     201  .   .
74 RSR uk    3.0  .      .    315-330 .    .   .
74 RSR Turbo 2.1  .      .    480     .    .   .

75 911       2.7  K-Jet  7.9  150     175  130 2303  4.8 11.1 19.9
75 911S      2.7  K-Jet  6.1  160d    166d 140 2303  4.4 10.7 20.0
75 Carrera   2.7  K-Jet  8.5  165e    166e 131 2303  8.5 16.1 22.9
75 930       3.0  .      5.8  260     253  152 .

76 911       2.7  k-jet  7.2  165     175  135 .     4.8 11.1 19.9
76 911N (q)       .      .    .       .    .   .
76 911S      2.7  k-jet  7.5A 165     175  144A 2470 4.4 10.7 20.0
76 Carrera   3.0  k-jet  6.1  200     188  140 .    
76 930       3.0  .      5.8  245g    253  152 2630 16.5 20.4 29.6
76 934       3.0  (f)    .    485-540 .    200 2464
76 935       2.8  .      .    580     .    .   .

77 911       2.7  .      7.2  165     175  135 .     4.8 11.1 19.9
77 911S      2.7  .      7.5A 165     175  144A.     4.4 10.7 20.0
77 Carrera   3.0  .      6.1  200     188  140 .    12.0 13.7 15.9
77 930       3.0  .      5.8  245g    253  152 .    15.5 23.2 30.0
77 934            .      .    .       .    .   .
77 935       2.8  .      .    370-590 .    .   .

78 911SC 3.0      k-jet  7.0  180     175v 140 2560  8.5 13.5 23.5
78 930   3.3      .      5.6  265h    291h 155 .    16.9 22.3 29.5
78 935   2.86-3.2 .      .    590-900 .    227 2255
78 936   2.1      MFI    .    580     .    .   .
  
79 911SC 3.0      k-jet  7.0  180     175v 140 2560  8.0 13.9 20.0
79 930   3.3      .      5.6  265h    291h 155 2870 18.5 26.5 42.5
79 935            .      .    .       .    .   .
79 936   2.1      MFI    .    580     .    .   .

80 911SC 3.0      k-jet  7.0x 180     180v 140 2760  8.5 14.7 27.5
80 930   3.3      .      .    (j)     304  .   .    21.9 23.4 24.9
80 935   3.2      .      .    740     .    .   .

81 911SC 3.0      k-jet  7.0  180t    180t 140 2760  8.7 15.8 24.0
81 930   3.3      .      .    (j)     304  .   2860 19.3 24.5 27.8
81 935   3.2      .      .    760     .    .   .
81 936   2.7      MFI    .    600     .    .   .
  
82 911SC 3.0      k-jet  7.0  180t    180t 140 2760 10.0 16.5 23.0
82 930   3.3      .      .    (j)     304  .   2860 18.9 27.2 37.5
82 956   2.7      MFI    .    620     .    .   .
  
83 911SC     3.0  k-jet  7.0  180t    180t 140 2760 10.0 17.1 30.0
83 930       3.3  .      .    (j)     304  .   2860 21.0 27.6 33.0
83 911 SC RS 3.0  .      .    255     .    .   .
83 956       2.7  d-mot  .    620     .    .   .

--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------
  |              |induc-|0 to| Horse |    |top|    |              |
Yr| Model/Disp   |tion  | 60 | power |trq |spd| wt |    price     |
--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------

84 Carrera 3.2    mot    5.6  207k    192k 149 2760 21.0 25.2 30.0
84 930 3.3 (q)    .      .    300     .    .   2860 22.5 30.5 43.5
84 911 SC RS      .      5.0  .       .    159 .
84 962 2.8        .      .    650     .    .   .

85 Carrera 3.2    mot    5.6  207k    192k 149 2760 14.5 21.3 36.5
85 930 3.3 (q)    .      .    300     .    .   2860 26.0 31.7 39.9
85 959            .      .    .       .    .   .
85 962 3.2        .      .    700     .    .   .

86 Carrera 3.2    mot    5.3  207k    192k 149 2760 14.3 22.5 34.0
86 930 3.3        .      .    282m    287  .   .    24.5 34.2 34.2
86 959            .      .    .       .    .   .
86 961            .      .    .       .    .   .

87 Carrera 3.2    mot    5.3  217n    195n 149 2670 16.9 25.5 45.9
87 930 3.3        .      5.4  286p    287  162 2940 27.0 36.6 48.9
87 959            .      .    .       .    .   .

88 Carrera 3.2    LE-jet 5.3  217n    195n 149 2770 17.5 26.6 40.0
88 911 Club Sport .      5.3  217n    195n 154 2550
88 911 Turbo      k-jet  5.0  282w    289w 155 3055 28.9 43.1 64.9
88 959 Sport 2.9  .      .    450     .    197 .

89 Carrera  3.2   .      5.3  217n    195n 149 .    25.9 30.5 40.0
89 911 Club Sport .      5.3  217n    195n 154 2550
89 964 (C4) 3.6   .      .    250     229  .   .    29.0 34.9 43.5
89 911 Turbo      k-jet  5.0  282w    289w 155 3055 39.0 50.9 65.0
  
90 964 (C2) 3.6   .      5.7  250     229  161 3031 28.0 35.9 52.0
90 964 (C4) 3.6   .      5.8  250     229  161 3320 30.0 37.7 50.0
90 Turbo    3.3   .      5.1  300     .    159 3055 

91 964 (C2) 3.6   .      5.7  250     229  161 .    32.0 41.0 55.0
91 964 (C4) 3.6   .      5.8  250     229  161 3197 37.9 43.5 53.0
91 C2 Turbo       .      5.0  320     .    168 3274 51.9 60.7 69.0

92 964 (C2) 3.6   .      5.7  250     229  161 3197 38.0 45.0 53.0
92 964 (C4) 3.6   .      5.8  250     229  161 .    43.0 46.8 55.8
92 RS America     .      .    250     229  .   .    
92 962 (C2) RS    .      .    260     240  .   .
92 Turbo          .      5.0  320     332  168 .    58.7 70.8 85.0
92 Turbo S        .      4.6  381     361  180 .

93 964 (C2) 3.6   .      5.7  250     229  161 .    43.0 49.9 61.5
93 964 (C4) 3.6   .      5.8  250     229  161 .    48.9 51.9 55.0
93 RS America     .      .    250     229  .   .    38.5 43.3 51.5
93 C2 Turbo       .      4.8  360     384  175 .   

94 993 (s)        .      5.4  .       .    168 .
94 930 3.6        .      .    .       .    .   .    84.9 90.0 98.5

95 993 (C2)       .      5.3  270     .    168 3065 53.7 61.0 69.3
95 993 (C4)       .      .    270     .    .   3065

--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------
  |              |induc-|0 to| Horse |    |top|    |              |
Yr| Model/Disp   |tion  | 60 | power |trq |spd| wt |    price     |
--+--------------+------+----+-------+----+---+----+--------------+-----------

--------------------------
Key:
               carbureted (multiple or unknown types)
    Zen	             Zenith 40TIN Carburetors
    Web	             Weber 40 IDT Carburetors
    Sol	             Solex 40 PI Carburetors
    MFI	             Bosch Mechanical fuel injection
    k-jet	     Bosch K Jetronic fuel injection (same as CIS)
    mot	             Bosch Motronic fuel injection

    Model/Disp       Model / Displacement (in Liters)
    0 to 60          0 to 60 MPH in Seconds
    Horsepower       Horsepower (DIN)
    trq              Torque in Pounds Feet
    top spd          Top speed in Miles per hour
    weight           Weight in Pounds
    price            1995 asking prices in thousand US dollars (rounded off)
                     taken from July 1995 and January 1995 issues of the 
		     Porsche Market Letter (thanks Phil!).  Note: speedsters
		     and cabrios were prices separately and will cost more
		     than the prices shown.  Check out the PML web page at:
		           http://www.tta.com/Porschephiles/home.html

Notes:
    a  US models have MFI (w/140 HP); UK models have Solex or Zenith 
       Carbs (w/130 HP)
    b  Early models have MFI, 73 1/2 models have CIS.
    c  210 HP, 188 lb. ft. Torque in ROW, UK models have mfi; US models 
       have ?
    d  49-state us models have 165 HP, California has 160, ROW has 175 HP;
       ROW has 175 lb. ft. of Torque.
    e  210 HP, 188 lb. ft. of Torque for ROW
    f  k-jet (non-us) or mech (us)
    g  245 HP in US & Japan; 260 HP elsewhere
    h  265 HP in US and Japan, 300 HP elsewhere; 304 lb. ft. in ROW
    j  Not available in US, 265 HP in Japan, 300 HP elsewhere
    k  207 HP in US and Japan, 231 HP elsewhere; 192 lb. ft. in US and
       Japan, 209 lb. ft. elsewhere.
    m  282 HP in US, 300 HP in ROW; 195 lb. ft. in US, 209 lb. ft. in
       ROW
    n  217 HP in US, 231 HP in ROW
    p  286 HP in US, 300 HP in ROW
    q  European Model
    r  Weber/Zenith
    s  Rest Of World Model
    t  180 HP in US and Japan, 204 HP elsewhere; 195 lb. ft. Torque 
       in ROW
    u  140 HP, 148 lb. ft. Torque in ROW
    v  195 lb. ft. Torque in ROW
    w  282 HP in US, 300 in ROW; 287 lb. ft. Torque in US, 319 lb. ft.
       in ROW
    x  Time is a 0-62 MPH (0-100 KPH)

    A  0-60 is 7.5 seconds for US version, 6.1 for ROW.  Top speed is
       144 MPH for US version 142 for ROW.

Q8.  I want to buy a 911.  How should I go about it?

A.   There's lots of stuff.  

     DECIDE WHY YOU WANT THE CAR.  Decide whether you want an old 
     show car, a race car, a daily driver, or whatever.  This should 
     help you settle on which types of 911 are best for you.

     HOMEWORK.  Get some books and research the different cars (check 
     out the references at the end of this FAQ).  When it comes to 
     information, some is good, more is better, and too much is just 
     enough.  Figure out which years, models, and features of 911 are 
     in your list.  

     Once you decide on a car type, find out what can go wrong with 
     them and how much it can cost to fix them.
     
     PRICES.  Check out the usual sources for prices and availability:

	- The "Porsche Market Letter", (619) 727-4856, 1 yr 
	  subscription $55

	- Panorama (the newsletter to the Porsche Club of America),

	- The "Auto Trader", (800) 845-9612.  Some regions also 
	  have the "Sports Car Trader".

     	- "Hemmings Motor News", (800) CAR-HERE
	- The "Recycler",
	- The local newspaper,
	- The "Penny Saver",
	- Porsche Swap Meets.

     Shop for insurance at this point.  You don't want to find your 
     dream car and find out you can't afford to insure it.  Insurance 
     companies vary drastically (as do the costs for the different 
     years and models).

     Check out financing.  If you want an older 911, you may have some 
     trouble getting a loan.  Used car loans usually only apply to cars 
     with a value listed in the Kelly Blue Book (those that deal with 
     older cars usually do so based on a rediculously low estimate of the 
     value of the car).  If you don't have extra dollars hanging around, 
     you may have to get an unsecured loan (at a higher interest rate).

     FIND A MECHANIC.  Especially if you are able to look for a car
     close-to-home, find a mechanic before you start looking.  Ask 
     friends who their mechanics are and talk to PCA and POC personnel.
     Talk to your mechanic (and other knowledgeable people) about what
     you should be looking for in a car.

     LOOK FOR A CAR.  Now that you know the car (and price range) for 
     which you are looking, start your search.  Take lots of information
     including VIN, etc.
     
     CHECK-OUT THE CAR.  If the car is long distance, you may have the 
     owner take it to a mechanic first.  I tend to like to use Porsche 
     dealers for long distance check-outs.  Dealers may be more 
     expensive but they should know their stuff.
     
     If the car is nearby, check-out the car in person first.  Look for 
     features, rust, and general condition.  Test drive your car: does
     it start easily, does it accelerate with no flat spots, does it go
     into all gears easily?

     TAKE THE CAR TO A MECHANIC.  Have the mechanic do a compression
     check and a leakdown.  Have him make sure the engine numbers match
     the VIN.  He should be able to itemize everything you need to put
     the car into street concourse condition (even if you don't want
     to show the car, this will give you an idea of everything the car
     needs).  The list should help you decide whether you want this
     car and, if so, the price range for the car.

     CHECKLIST.  Check out the following checklist for some ideas of
     stuff for which to look.

     BUY THE CAR.  Join the PCA / POC.  Enjoy your car.

Q9   What should the VIN or engine number look like for my car?

A.   Well, I'm not going to go into that here 'cause it's long and
     there are so many other books that do it completely.  For VINs,
     check out Bruce Anderson's "Porsche 911 Performance Handbook" or
     "Guide to Purchase & DIY Restoration of the Porsche 911".  For
     both VINs and engine numbers, consult Brett Johnson's Restorer's
     guides or "The Used 911 Story" (for US cars only).

Q10. Does anyone have a checklist for potential 911 buyers?

A.   Here it is (click to load text file).

References:

"Porsche 911 Performance Handbook", Bruce Anderson, Motorbooks 
International, 1987

"Guide to Purchase & DIY Restoration of the Porsche 911", Porter
and Morgan, Haynes Publishing, 1988

"The 911 and 912 Porsche, a Restorer's Guide to Authenticity", 
Dr. Brett Johnson, Beeman Jorgensen, Inc., 1988, 1991

"Original Porsche 911", Peter Morgan (et.al.), Bay View Books, 1995

"Illustrated Porsche Buyer's Guide, 2nd Edition", Dean Batchelor,
Motorbooks International, 1983, 1986

"Road & Track Porsche", CBS Magazines, 1988

"Road & Track Porsche", CBS Magazines, 1990

"New For '95", Road & Track, October 1994, Hachettte Filpacchi 
Magazines, Inc, 1990

Miscellaneous Articles, lance_keigwin@engtwomac.Synoptics.COM, 
mpardo@itsa.ucsf.EDU,

"911 #1", Excellence, November 1994, Don Hollway

"The Used 911 Story", Peter Zimmerman, PMZ Publications, 1993

Wade Guthrie
wade@realm.net
http://www.realm.net/~wade

 
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